Zakat ul Fitr is an obligatory charity on every young and old; male and female; free and slave Muslim towards the end of the month of Ramadan. It is an addition to the annual Zakat also called as Sadaqa al Fitr. Its prominence is such that it is the hallmark of Eid and aptly named as Eid ul Fitr. It amounts to the value equivalent to feed a person for one day. Ibn Umar said: “The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) enjoined the payment of one Sa’a of dates or one Sa’a of barley as Zakat al-Fitr on every Muslim, young and old, male and female, free and slave.” (Sahhih Bukhari and Muslim)
Zakat-ul-Fitr purifies one from any type of indecent act or speech which he/she might have committed while observing fast. This charity is imposed so that the needs of the poor are attained to thereby making them possible to celebrate Eid with other fellow Muslims. Ibn Abbas said: “The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) enjoined Zakat Al-Fitr so that those who fast are purified of their sins and the poor and needy people are enabled to arrange for their basic needs of food, clothing etc. Therefore, the Sadaqah (charity) of the person who gives before the `Eid prayer is the real Sadaqah, but if someone delays and gives it afterwards, his charity will be an ordinary one.”
(Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah)
The word Sa’a in Arabic, mentioned in the hadith is a measure approximated to the volume of 2.5 kg to 2.75 kg of good quality wheat. The material of the Zakat al Fitr can also be dates, barley, rice, corn or similar items considered as basic foods that are habitually consumed. Abu Saeed said: “We used to give for Zakat al-Fitr on behalf of every child, aged person, free man or slave during the lifetime of the Messenger of ALLAH PBUH – one Sa’a of food, or one Sa’a of dried yogurt, or one Sa’a of barley, or one Sa’a of dates, or one Sa’a of raisins.” (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim)
The poor and the needy are the most deserving to receive Zakat al-Fitr as Prophet PBUH said “…the purpose of it is providing food for the needy.” Better that Zakat al-Fitr is paid during the end of Ramadan. It can be paid (or preferably paid) one or two days before Eid as ‘Umar RA used to do, or on the day of Eid before the Eid prayer. Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ordered them to pay Zakat al-Fitr before they go out to perform the Eid prayer.
Note if Zakat al-Fitr is paid after the Eid prayer, it will only be considered as regular charity. The Prophet Muhammad PBUH said: “If one pays Zakat al-Fitr before the Salat, it is considered as an accepted Zakat, if he pays it after the Salat, it is considered an ordinary charity.” (Abu Dawud)
Info about Sadaqat ul-Fitr:
Question1: Who should give Sadaqat ul-Fitr?
Answer:Zakat ul-fitr is a type of sadaqah which must be paid by every Muslim, young and old, male and female, free and slave, at the end of the month of fasting(Ramadan)
Question2: Who Must Pay Sadaqat ul fitr:
Zakat ul-fitr is i on every free Muslim who possesses one sa’ (about 2kg 100 grm )of dates or barley which is not needed as a basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night
Question3: what should be give in Sadaqat ul Fitr ?
Answer : The required amount of zakat ul-fitr is one sa’ (about 2kg 100grm) )of wheat, barley, raisins,dry cottage cheese (aqit), rice, corn, or similar items considered as basic foods.
Question4: Can a person give price of these things ?
Answer: yes based on need better to give these things but if a person give money equal to the price of these things it will be allowed .
Question5: When should it be given ?
Answer : Three days ,Two or day before …giving it before this is not allowed .
And those who give it after eid salah (Prayer) has not benefit, so they can give before the prayer as well.
How should a Muslim seek Lailatul-Qadr?
O brothers! You know the importance of this night, so stand in Prayer in the last ten nights, in worship, detaching oneself from the women, ordering your family with this, and increasing in actions of obedience and worship in it.
It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:
When the last ten days of Ramadaan began, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would tighten his waist-wrapper, spend his nights in prayer, and wake his family.
[Narrated by Sahih Muslim, 2024; Sahih Muslim, 1174]
Allaah swt says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down in the Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree).
2. And what will make you know what the Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree) is?
How should we observe Laylat al-Qadr? Is it by praying, or by reading Qur’aan and the Prophet’s Seerah, listening to lectures and lessons and by celebrating it in the mosque?.
How should we observe Laylat al-Qadr and when is it?
Praise be to Allaah.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to strive hard in worship during the last ten days of Ramadaan as he never did at any other time, praying, reading Qur’aan and making du’aa’. Al-Bukhaari and Muslim narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that when the last ten days of Ramadaan came, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would stay up at night and would wake his family up, and would abstain from marital relations. Ahmad and Muslim narrated that he used to used to strive hard in worship during the last ten days of Ramadaan as he never did at any other time.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined staying up and praying on Laylat al-Qadr out of faith and in the hope of reward. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever stays up and prays on Laylat al-Qadr out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.” Agreed upon. This hadeeth indicates that it is prescribed to observe Laylat al-Qadr by spending the night in prayer.
One of the best du’aa’s that may be recited on Laylat al-Qadr is that which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught to ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). Al-Tirmidhi narrated, and classed the report as saheeh, that ‘Aa’ishah said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, if I know which night is Laylat al-Qadr, what should I say on that night?’ He said, ‘Say: Allaahumma innaka ‘afuwwun tuhibb al-‘afwa fa’affu ‘anni (O Allaah, You are forgiving and You love forgiveness, so forgive me).”
With regard to specifying which night of Ramadaan is Laylat al-Qadr, this needs specific evidence, but the odd-numbered nights during the last ten nights are more likely than others, and the night of the twenty-seventh is the most likely to be Laylat al-Qadr, because that is mentioned in the ahaadeeth.
With regard to innovations, they are not permissible during Ramadaan or at other times. It was proven that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever innovates anything in this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” According to another report, “Whoever does any action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”
We know of no basis for the celebrations that are held during some nights of Ramadaan. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the worst of matters are those which are innovated (bid’ah).
And Allaah is the Source of strength. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.
Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas , 10/413