Zakat ul Fitr is an obligatory charity on every young and old; male and female; free and slave Muslim towards the end of the month of Ramadan. It is an addition to the annual Zakat also called as Sadaqa al Fitr. Its prominence is such that it is the hallmark of Eid and aptly named as Eid ul Fitr. It amounts to the value equivalent to feed a person for one day. Ibn Umar said: “The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) enjoined the payment of one Sa’a of dates or one Sa’a of barley as Zakat al-Fitr on every Muslim, young and old, male and female, free and slave.” (Sahhih Bukhari and Muslim)
Zakat-ul-Fitr purifies one from any type of indecent act or speech which he/she might have committed while observing fast. This charity is imposed so that the needs of the poor are attained to thereby making them possible to celebrate Eid with other fellow Muslims. Ibn Abbas said: “The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) enjoined Zakat Al-Fitr so that those who fast are purified of their sins and the poor and needy people are enabled to arrange for their basic needs of food, clothing etc. Therefore, the Sadaqah (charity) of the person who gives before the `Eid prayer is the real Sadaqah, but if someone delays and gives it afterwards, his charity will be an ordinary one.”
(Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah)
The word Sa’a in Arabic, mentioned in the hadith is a measure approximated to the volume of 2.5 kg to 2.75 kg of good quality wheat. The material of the Zakat al Fitr can also be dates, barley, rice, corn or similar items considered as basic foods that are habitually consumed. Abu Saeed said: “We used to give for Zakat al-Fitr on behalf of every child, aged person, free man or slave during the lifetime of the Messenger of ALLAH PBUH – one Sa’a of food, or one Sa’a of dried yogurt, or one Sa’a of barley, or one Sa’a of dates, or one Sa’a of raisins.” (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim)
The poor and the needy are the most deserving to receive Zakat al-Fitr as Prophet PBUH said “…the purpose of it is providing food for the needy.” Better that Zakat al-Fitr is paid during the end of Ramadan. It can be paid (or preferably paid) one or two days before Eid as ‘Umar RA used to do, or on the day of Eid before the Eid prayer. Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ordered them to pay Zakat al-Fitr before they go out to perform the Eid prayer.
Note if Zakat al-Fitr is paid after the Eid prayer, it will only be considered as regular charity. The Prophet Muhammad PBUH said: “If one pays Zakat al-Fitr before the Salat, it is considered as an accepted Zakat, if he pays it after the Salat, it is considered an ordinary charity.” (Abu Dawud)
Info about Sadaqat ul-Fitr:
Question1: Who should give Sadaqat ul-Fitr?
Answer:Zakat ul-fitr is a type of sadaqah which must be paid by every Muslim, young and old, male and female, free and slave, at the end of the month of fasting(Ramadan)
Question2: Who Must Pay Sadaqat ul fitr:
Zakat ul-fitr is i on every free Muslim who possesses one sa’ (about 2kg 100 grm )of dates or barley which is not needed as a basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night
Question3: what should be give in Sadaqat ul Fitr ?
Answer : The required amount of zakat ul-fitr is one sa’ (about 2kg 100grm) )of wheat, barley, raisins,dry cottage cheese (aqit), rice, corn, or similar items considered as basic foods.
Question4: Can a person give price of these things ?
Answer: yes based on need better to give these things but if a person give money equal to the price of these things it will be allowed .
Question5: When should it be given ?
Answer : Three days ,Two or day before …giving it before this is not allowed .
And those who give it after eid salah (Prayer) has not benefit, so they can give before the prayer as well.
How should a Muslim seek Lailatul-Qadr?
O brothers! You know the importance of this night, so stand in Prayer in the last ten nights, in worship, detaching oneself from the women, ordering your family with this, and increasing in actions of obedience and worship in it.
It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:
When the last ten days of Ramadaan began, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would tighten his waist-wrapper, spend his nights in prayer, and wake his family.
[Narrated by Sahih Muslim, 2024; Sahih Muslim, 1174]
Allaah swt says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down in the Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree).
2. And what will make you know what the Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree) is?
How should we observe Laylat al-Qadr? Is it by praying, or by reading Qur’aan and the Prophet’s Seerah, listening to lectures and lessons and by celebrating it in the mosque?.
How should we observe Laylat al-Qadr and when is it?
Praise be to Allaah.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to strive hard in worship during the last ten days of Ramadaan as he never did at any other time, praying, reading Qur’aan and making du’aa’. Al-Bukhaari and Muslim narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that when the last ten days of Ramadaan came, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would stay up at night and would wake his family up, and would abstain from marital relations. Ahmad and Muslim narrated that he used to used to strive hard in worship during the last ten days of Ramadaan as he never did at any other time.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined staying up and praying on Laylat al-Qadr out of faith and in the hope of reward. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever stays up and prays on Laylat al-Qadr out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.” Agreed upon. This hadeeth indicates that it is prescribed to observe Laylat al-Qadr by spending the night in prayer.
One of the best du’aa’s that may be recited on Laylat al-Qadr is that which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught to ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). Al-Tirmidhi narrated, and classed the report as saheeh, that ‘Aa’ishah said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, if I know which night is Laylat al-Qadr, what should I say on that night?’ He said, ‘Say: Allaahumma innaka ‘afuwwun tuhibb al-‘afwa fa’affu ‘anni (O Allaah, You are forgiving and You love forgiveness, so forgive me).”
With regard to specifying which night of Ramadaan is Laylat al-Qadr, this needs specific evidence, but the odd-numbered nights during the last ten nights are more likely than others, and the night of the twenty-seventh is the most likely to be Laylat al-Qadr, because that is mentioned in the ahaadeeth.
With regard to innovations, they are not permissible during Ramadaan or at other times. It was proven that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever innovates anything in this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” According to another report, “Whoever does any action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”
We know of no basis for the celebrations that are held during some nights of Ramadaan. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the worst of matters are those which are innovated (bid’ah).
And Allaah is the Source of strength. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.
Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas , 10/413
♥ Prophet Muhammad (Peace & Allah’s blessing be upon Him) said, “Break your fast by eating dates as it is purifying.” [Ahmad]
♥ Prophet Muhammad (Peace & Allah’s blessing be upon Him) said, “ Whoever finds dates should break his fast with them and the one who does not should break his fast with water because it is pure.”
5● Dates are rich in natural fibers, they also surpass other fruits in the sheer variety of their constituents. They contain oil, calcium, sulphur, iron, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, copper and magnesium.
Asalaamu alaikum waramathullahi wabarakathu dear Sisters & Brothers !
I’m A Sunni Muslim Alhmdulilah and I follow the Qur’an & our Beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s sunnah.
★ STOP CATEGORIZING ISLAM AND STOP TRYING TO DIVIDE ISLAM. WE ARE ALL MUSLIMS. MUSLIMS ARE ALL BROTHERS, SISTERS AND WE ARE ALL ONE UMMAH.
“Those who annoy ALLAH and His Messenger shall be cursed by ALLAH in this world and in the Hereafter. ALLAH has prepared for them a humiliating punishment”.
Wake up Muslims!! We are ONE Ummah, and we worship ONE GOD. It doesn’t matter if your father is from China or if you mother is from Jamaica, we are one body, one entity, ONE Ummah! Allah the Almighty says:
“Verily, this community of yours is a single community, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other)”
This is a divine law “IF YOU ARE UNITED, YOU WILL BECOME POWERFUL”
Make a promise today; “I won’t live for myself anymore. I belong to this Ummah and I will live for it!” , In Sha Allah
The Noble Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) has said,”Almighty Allah says, ‘I treat my servant according to his expectations from Me, and I am with him when he remembers me. If he remembers Me in his heart, I remember him in My heart…. if he walks towards Me, I run unto him.” (Hadith-Qudsi)
Make this Ramadhaan the month of “Change”..Are You Ready for it???
“Change” is the vogue today. “Change” is being chanted by the Presidents to rally up public support; “Change” is being demanded by the masses suffering due to skyrocketing fuel and commodity prices; “Change”, a drastic one indeed, is what we are witnessing with awe in the global weather patterns.
For Muslims, Ramadhaan is the prime time for change. This month dramatically alters our routines and schedules. From tight sleep schedules, to hunger for extended hours, to reduction in consumption of junk foods, to a technology diet; to withdrawal from caffeine addiction, to lengthy standing in Taraweeh prayers at night, to extensive listening to the Quran. What a change indeed!
Beyond Routines and Rituals:
The real change, however, Ramadhaan demands of us is the internal change – a change that positively transforms our lifestyle, character, attitudes, conversations, and habits. Allah has described this change in the month of Ramadhaan as follows: “O you who believe, fasting has been ordained on you as it was decreed upon those before you so that you may adopt Taqwa” (2:183 [ Translation of the Holy Quran 2:183].
If our change is limited to outer physical practices only, we become slaves to Ramadhaan, instead of being servants to Ar-Rahman (Allah, the Merciful).
Prophet Muhammad has warned us about those who don’t fast from bad behaviour:
“Allah has no interest in any person’s abstention from eating and drinking, if that person does not give up lying and dishonest actions” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
Every Ramadhaan we make resolutions and tell ourselves: “This Ramadhaan will be different. I’m going to change my ______ habit.” “I will give up ………”, “I will take my practice of Islam to the next level”. But how many of us are really able to follow through? Plenty of good intentions, many amazing wishes, but sadly enough, life goes on as usual the morning of Eid.
Ask yourself, how is my fasting benefitting my spiritual connection with Allah? How is my extensive worship in Ramadhaan helping me discipline my tongue (taste and speech), eyes, ears, and habits?
Are you ready to take that first step to transform your bad habits into good ones?
Few things are more demanding than eliminating bad habits, since they are part of our daily routines and personality. It takes days of patience and practice to break old habits.
However, the good news is, Ramadhaan offers a perfect and natural environment for moral training. Interestingly, researches from “positive psychology” (scientific study of successful people) have repeatedly shown it takes between 30 to 40 days to kick a bad habit and develop a new one.
In addition to the physical discipline during the month of Ramadhaan, the increased spiritual exercise and connection with Allah, can transform your habits for life.
Try these proven techniques for a successful positive change in your habits during Ramadhaan and beyond!
1. Acknowledge and Identify your bad habits: First step is to admit you need to change. If you are in a state of denial, you won’t recognize that you have a bad habit to change.
2. Pick a habit for this month: Prioritize your bad habits and focus on one for this month. If you are committed to changing at least one habit, you will see remarkable results, Allah-willing.
3. Realize that it’s in us to change: Don’t believe the old saying, “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.” You can break a bad habit if you really want to. No one else can change your habits, if you don’t want to.
4. Remember, Allah loves those who commit mistakes and repent: The Noble Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:
“By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if you were not to commit sin, Allah would sweep you out of existence and He would replace (you by) those people who would commit sin and seek forgiveness from Allah, and He would have pardoned them.” (Hadith -Sahih Muslim)
5. Intention & Plan to change: “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.” A healthy process of change in character requires a gradual pace, which entails planning. Develop concrete milestones to measure your progress.
6. Replace a bad habit with a good one: Completely eliminating a habit is more challenging than replacing it with a more productive habit. Moreover, it’s crucial to replace the lost natural needs, such as the need to socialize and to be entertained with something healthy.
For instance, it’s easier to replace your addiction to TV with a physical workout or reading the Qur’aan or a good Islamic book etc. Interestingly, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the greatest ‘psychologist’ of humanity, illustrated this principle in these words:
“Fear Allah wherever you may be; follow up an evil deed with a good one which will wipe (the former) out, and behave good-naturedly towards people.” (Hadith-At-Tirmidhi).
7. Change your Environment: Resist the negative peer pressure by finding a better company of friends. Collective action to change is very powerful. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) explained this peer pressure effect with the analogy:
“A good friend and a bad friend are like a perfume-seller and a blacksmith: The perfume-seller might give you some perfume as a gift, or you might buy some from him, or at least you might smell its fragrance. As for the blacksmith, he might singe your clothes, and at the very least you will breathe in the fumes of the furnace.” (Hadith-Sahih al-Bukhari & Muslim)
8. Exercise: Spiritual exercise is important for lasting change. You may not realize that by exerting your yourself in spiritual exercises like the reading of Qur’an and Hadith, fasting, giving charity, Zikr(remembering Allah),Spending time in the Path of Allah etc helps in eliminating a number of bad habits. Through the spiritual light of doing noble deeds, evil ones will gradually be eradicated from your life. Allah says : “Indeed, Salah restrains from Shameful and unjust deeds” (Quran:29:45). A person complained to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) about someone who read salaah and also committed theft .The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said “His salaat will very soon wean him off that sin.’ This shows that the evil habits can be got rid of by adhering to good practises. The doing of good deeds such as remembering Allah cleanses the heart. A clean heart encourages a person to do good deeds and refrains one from evil habits!
Moreover, exercising your will power (struggle to fight temptations) for this month helps you kick all kinds of bad habits and form new good ones. Willpower is like a muscle; the more you exercise it, the more you strengthen it.
9. Think of yourself as a changed, different, new person. This simple psychological shift in your thinking about your own image can do wonders. Tell yourself, “I can’t continue this ill-behaviour. I am better than that. I am stronger. I am wiser.”
10. Reward success: The most fundamental law in all of psychology is the “law of effect.” It simply states that actions followed by rewards are strengthened and likely to recur. Unfortunately, studies show that people rarely use this technique when trying to change personal habits.
Setting up formal or informal rewards for success greatly increases your chances of transforming bad habits into good ones, and is far more effective than punishing yourself for bad habits or setbacks. As Muslims we should also remember that the ultimate reward is Allah’s Pleasure and Paradise in the Hereafter.
11. Get help: Tell someone about your effort to change if it helps. He or she may keep you on track and may offer some good advice. Read books that will encourage you to do virtues actions. Join the various (amaal) programs in your local Musjid. Ladies should endeavour to join their local Taalimi Halqas. There are good and sincere people who are ready to assist. We are not an island- We are an Ummah!
12. Boost your spiritual immune system: By fasting,doing good actions,Itikaaf(seclusion), spending time in the Musjid with the pious friends of Allah or going in the Path of Allah will boost your Imaan which will provide you with internal strength to overcome temptations to reverting to old bad habits.
13. Remind yourself of Death and Hereafter often: “Remember often the terminator (or destroyer) of all the pleasures(i.e. death),” the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)once stated. (Hadith-At-Tirmidhi.)
14. Resolve to continue on and follow up:Giving up bad habits or learning good habits requires regular maintenance and determination. It is a long, ongoing process, also known as “Tazkiyyah” in Islamic terminology. It’s more difficult than the first few steps of change. (“How many times have I dieted, for example, only to gain the weight back?”). So ensure that you follow up. Link yourself to a good Allah-fearing Islamic Scholar, make a habit of spending time in the Path of Allah and constantly engage in noble and charitable work.
How do you ensure not to return to your bad habit you are trying to change? Some people donate money to a good cause every time they return to sinning or a bad habit. This reminds them of the ‘cost’ of going back to old bad habits. Others try physically demanding acts to deter them from reverting to old ways. For example that if you do___ act than you will keep three fast or pay so much sadaqah(charity) etc
16. Ask Allah for Help (Dua): MOST IMPORTANT!-Make Asking for Allah’s Help an integral part of the overall change process. Ask for Allah’s Help before, during and after every attempt at kicking a bad habit. Do so sincerely, even begging and crying, like a child does when he or she really wants something. Allah is Ever-Willing to Help and to Respond to our needs, but it is us who must take the first step towards Him. Allah will NEVER disappoint us! Allah Ta’ala says “ Ask me, and I will answer your call…” (Translation of the Holy Quran 40:60)
“And whosoever is conscious of Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He (Allah) will make a way for him to get out (from) every (difficulty), and He will provide him from (sources) he could never imagine.” (Translation of the Holy Quran 65:2-3)
So surely you Can do it!!!…Just Trust and Pray to Allah and make that great change this Ramadhaan!
By The E Islam Team
There are many Sunnahs of fasting, including the following:
1 – It is Sunnah if someone insults you to respond in a better manner and say, “I am fasting,” because of the report narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Fasting is a paradise so there should be no obscene or offensive talk or behaviour. If a person fights him or insults him, let him say, ‘I am fasting,’ twice. By the One in Whose hand is my soul, the smell coming from the mouth of the fasting person is better before Allaah then the fragrance of musk. [Allaah says:] ‘He gives up his food, drink and desire for My sake. Fasting is for Me and I will reward for it, and a good deed receives the reward of ten like it.’” Al-Bukhaari, no. 1894; Muslim, 1151.
2 – It is Sunnah for the fasting person to eat suhoor, because it was proven in al-Saheehayn that Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Eat suhoor for in suhoor there is blessing.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1923; Muslim, 1059).
3 – It is Sunnah to delay suhoor because of the report narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas from Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “We ate suhoor with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), then he got up to pray.” I said: “How much time was there between the adhaan and suhoor?” He said: “The time it takes to recite fifty verses.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1921).
4 – It is Sunnah to hasten to break the fast because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The people will continue to be fine so long as they hasten to break the fast.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1957; Muslim, 1098).
5 – It is Sunnah to break the fast with fresh dates; if none are available then with dry dates; if none are available then with water – because of the hadeeth of Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to break his fast with fresh dates before praying; if there were no (fresh dates) then with dry dates, and if there were no (dried dates) then he would take a few sips of water.
(Nararted by Abu Dawood, no. 2356; al-Tirmidhi, 696; classed as hasan in al-Irwa’, 4/45)
6 – It is Sunnah when breaking the fast to say what is narrated in the hadeeth, which is to say Bismillaah. This is obligatory according to the correct view because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined that. The words “Allaahumma laka sumtu wa ‘ala rizqika aftartu, Allaahumma taqabbal minni, innaka antaal-samee’ al-‘aleem (O Allaah, for You I have fasted and with Your provision I have broken my fast, O Allaah accept (this fast) from me for You are the All-Hearing, All-Knowing) are da’eef (weak), as stated by Ibn al-Qayyim (Zaad al-Ma’aad, 2/51). There is also another report: “Dhahaba al-‘zama’ wa abtallat al-‘urooq wa thabata al-ajr in sha Allaah (the thirst is gone, the veins have been moistened and the reward is assured, if Allaah wills).” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2357; al-Bayhaqi, 4/239; classed as hasan in al-Irwa’, 4/39).
There are ahaadeeth which speak of the virtue of the du’aa’ of the fasting person, such as the following:
(i) It was narrated from Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Three prayers are not rejected: the prayer of a father, the prayer of a fasting person, and the prayer of a traveler.” Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 3/345; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Saheeh 1797.
(ii) It was narrated from Abu Umaamah in a marfoo’ report: “Every time the fast is broken Allaah has people whom He ransoms.” Narrated by Ahmad, 21698; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb, 1/491.
(iii) It was narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri in a marfoo’ report: “Allaah ransoms people every day and night – i.e., in Ramadaan – and every day and night the Muslim has a prayer that is answered.” Narrated by al-Bazzaar; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb, 1/491.
Some muslim womens, may Allah guide them, dress their young daughters in short dresses that display the shins.
Above picture is a sample of inappropriate dressing which should be avoided my muslim womens.
Muslim womans should not dress his daughter in such clothing while she is young.
This is because if she grows accustomed to it, she will stick with it and she will consider it a light matter.
However, if you trained her properly to be bashful when she was young, she would continue in that proper manner when she gets older.
I advise my Muslim sisters to leave the dress of the foreigners who are the enemies of the religion and to bring up their children wearing clothes that cover their bodies and to teach them modesty, for modesty is part of faith.
If we are dressing our kids with according to islamic principles, they’ll used to wear those clothes when they are younger and older,
If we let them to wear tight and bare clothes and we say that, no problem he/she is just a kid, when he/she grows up then it will be problem for him/her to get used with new clothes that parents offer.
Here we should consider the likes of kids as well and respect to it, but if we dressed them from childhood Islamic clothes, they’ll obviously select appropriate ones, if sometimes they show interest in inappropriate clothes the parents should let them know with kind words, that o’ my dear daughter/son we are Muslim, Alhmdulilah we should wear Islamic clothes and proud of it.
In Sha Allah, 🙂
Guidelines for Ramadhan
By Dr. Farouk Haffajee
The foods eaten should be well-balanced, containing foods from each food group, i.e. fruits, vegetables, meat/chicken/fish, bread/cereals and dairy products. Fried foods are unhealthy and should be limited. They cause indigestion, heart-burn, and weight problems.
Fried and fatty foods.
o Foods containing too much sugar.
o Over-eating especially at sehri.
~ Too much tea at sehri. Tea makes you pass more urine taking with it valuable mineral salts that your body would need during the day.
~Smoking cigarettes. If you cannot give up smoking, cut down gradually starting a few weeks before Ramadhan. Smoking is unhealthy and one should stop completely.
Complex carbohydrates at sehri so that the food lasts longer making you less hungry.
§ Haleem is an excellent source of protein and is a slow-burning food.
§ Dates are excellent source of sugar, fibre, carbohydrates, potassium and magnesium.
§ Almonds are rich in protein and fibre with less fat.
§ Bananas are a good source of potassium, magnesium and carbohydrates.
As much water or fruit juices as possible between iftar and bedtime so that your body may adjust fluid levels in time.
Constipation can cause piles (haemorroids), fissures (painful cracks in anal canal) and indigestion with a bloated feeling.
Causes: Too much refined foods, too little water and not enough fibre in the diet.
Remedy: Avoid excessive refined foods, increase water intake, use bran in baking, brown flour when making roti.
INDIGESTION AND WIND
Causes: Over-eating. Too much fried and fatty foods, spicy foods, and foods that produce wind e.g. eggs, cabbage, lentils, carbonated drinks like Cola also produce gas.
Remedy: Do not over-eat, drink fruit juices or better still drink water. Avoid fried foods, add ajmor to wind-producing foods.
LETHARGY (‘low blood pressure’)
Excessive sweating, weakness, tiredness, lack of energy, dizziness, especially on getting up from sitting position, pale appearance and feeling faint are symptoms associated with “low blood pressure”. This tends to occur towards the afternoon.
Causes: Too little fluid intake, decreased salt intake.
Remedy: Keep cool, increase fluid and salt intake.
Caution: Low blood pressure should be confirmed by taking a blood pressure reading when symptoms are present. Persons with high blood pressure may need their medication adjusted during Ramadhan. They should consult their doctor.
Causes: Caffeine and tobacco-withdrawal, doing too much in one day, lack of sleep, hunger usually occur as the day goes by and worsens at the end of the day. When associated with “low blood pressure”, the headache can be quite severe and can also cause nausea before Iftar.
Remedy: Cut down caffeine and tobacco slowly starting a week or two before Ramadhan. Herbal and caffeine-free teas may be substituted. Reorganise your schedule during the Ramadan so as to have adequate sleep.
LOW BLOOD SUGAR:
Weakness, dizziness, tiredness, poor concentration, perspiring easily, feeling shaky (tremor), unable to perform physical activities, headache, palpitations are symptoms of low blood sugar.
Causes in non-diabetics: Having too much sugar i.e. refined carbohydrates especially at suhur (sehri). The body produces too much insulin causing the blood glucose to drop.
Remedy: Eat something at sehri and limit sugar-containing foods and drinks.
Caution: Diabetics may need to adjust their medication in Ramadan, consult your doctor.
Causes: Inadequate intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium foods.
Remedy: Eat foods rich in the above minerals e.g. vegetables, fruit, dairy products, meat and dates.
Caution: Those on high blood pressure medication and with kidney stone problems should consult their doctor.
PEPTIC ULCERS, HEART BURN, GASTRITIS AND HIATUS HERNIA
Increased acid levels in the empty stomach in Ramadhan aggravate the above conditions. It presents as a burning feeling in the stomach area under the ribs and can extend upto the throat. Spicy foods, coffee, and Cola drinks worsen these conditions.
Medications are available to control acid levels in the stomach. People with proven peptic ulcers and hiatus hernia should consult their doctor well before Ramadhan.
Kidney stones may occur in people who have less liquids to drink. Therefore, it is essential to drink extra liquids so as to prevent stone formation.
Causes: During Ramadhan, when extra salah are performed the pressure on the knee joints increases. In the elderly and those with arthritis this may result in pain, stiffness, swelling and discomfort.
Remedy: Lose weight so that the knees do not have to carry any extra load. Exercise the lower limbs before Ramadhan so that they can be prepared for the additional strain. Being physically fit allows greater fulfilment, thus enabling one to be able to perform salah with ease.
Dr. Farouk Haffejee Islamic Medical Association of South Africa – Durban
Women In Christianity And Islam
Whenever the topic of Islam is brought up among Westerners, it has been my experience that the first objection that immediately springs into their minds is: “But women are so extremely oppressed in Islam.”
And, “But women are second class citizens in Islam.” For example, they see that Muslim women usually observe modest standards in their clothing and they automatically equate their modesty with oppression.
They appear to feel that freedom is in some way directly proportional to how little clothing one wears and that oppression is directly proportional to the degree of modesty one exhibits in their clothing. Although this topic does not directly relate to the main topic of this book, still it seems inevitable to touch on this subject even if only very briefly, due to it’s importance.
The problem is twofold: First of all, people who make such objections usually only have A very superficial knowledge of the true teachings of Islam, and secondly, they do not realize what The Bible requires of all believing women.
I was once passing through Canada with in laws and their family. As we walked down the street, a Canadian Christian girl (in her late teens-perhaps early twenties) passed by us with a group of her friends. She looked at my mother in law who was dressed in modest clothing and had a large scarf wrapped around her head such that only her face was showing. She then stopped my mother in law and said words to the effect of: “Why do you allow your men to oppress you? Why do you wear these clothes?”
Now, my mother in law is a university graduate, a straight A student, highly respected by her peers, and gainfully employed as an inspector of the public educational system back in my home country. My mother in law has also distinguished herself in her study of the English language and it’s grammatical structure. However, she did not have an extensive working knowledge of American and Canadian pronunciation and slang, and thus, she missed the tone with which this question was delivered to her.
I decided to move a reasonable distance away, and let her handle this situation herself. My mother in law was very happy to answer this girl’s question and went on to explain to her about our religion and customs and how we prefer to dress modestly, and that Allah Almighty requires us to do this. However, this was not the answer this girl was looking for so she retorted: “Thanks for sharing!,” then spun around and stormed off.
Now, in my home country, our elders are quite used to being highly respected by those who are younger than them and being served by them. For this reason, it did not even occur to my mother in law that this question could have been anything more than a young girl respectfully asking an innocent question of a trusted elder, and I hated to tell her otherwise. I would have hated for her to leave Canada thinking that all Canadians or all Christians speak this way to their elders, since I know that this is not the true case. However, this episode did indeed sadden me.
Many non-Muslims feel sorry for any Muslim women they see adorned in their modest clothing. They feel that they are deprived the freedom to roam around in more scant and revealing clothing. Anyone who lives in a manner other that which they have become accustomed to is seen by them to be oppressed and forced to live in this manner. There are certain tribes in the Amazon jungle, in Australia, and in Africa, which have become accustomed to walking around in a simple g-string around their waist. What would the people of the West say if these people were to condemn the Western habit of “forcing” their women to wear “excessive amounts of clothing” and to demand that all women in the west immediately stop wearing anything but the simplest g-string around their waist? What if they were to say that the Western society should immediately stop unjustly persecuting their women and preventing them from freely roaming the streets wearing only a pair of socks? They would say that the people making these demands have no morals or shame. Philosophers would have a field day with such a question.
What if someone were to claim that it was immoral, discriminatory, and unjust to separate men and women indifferent public bathrooms the same as it is not just to do so with blacks and whites. What if this person were to then call (in the interest of equality, fairness, and constitutional freedom of course) for a merging of men and women’s bathrooms into one “unisex” or “equal-opportunity” bathrooms for both men and women? Once again, the philosophers would have a field day. Anyone who follows the news will see that this may indeed be where the USA is now headed. In the New York Post (31 Aug. 1994 or a little before) it was reported that women have now won the right to appear topless in the New York subway system. Where will the USA be a few years from now? That is anyone’s guess.
Who has the power to determine what decent and modest clothing is? Who is to determine what decent and modest behavior is? Muslims assign this right to God alone. This is the essence of “Islam.” “Islam” means “The submission to the will of God.” What God commands, a Muslim does. They do not demand that God justify his commands before they accept them. Once they have verified that a command is indeed from God then they abide by it without hesitation.
We can indeed find this lesson in the story of Adam. In the Islamic version of the story of Adam (slightly different than that of Judaism/Christianity), Adam and Eve were created by God, educated, clothed, and then allowed to inhabit heaven. They were told by God that they could have anything their hearts desired except they must not eat from the tree. Out of envy, the devil encouraged them to eat from the tree and told them that its fruit would make them angles or immortal. They ate from the tree and immediately, their bodies were revealed to one another, so they took to scooping up the leaves off the trees in order to cover themselves. This is when Allah sent them down to earth. What mankind learned from this lesson is that just because a person does not know the wisdom behind a command of God, and others tell him to disobey it, by the time the reason for the command is made apparent to them it may be too late.
Example of dress worn by a Christian nun. Compare it with how Muslim women dress today.
Well then, what is the Biblical view on these matters? Actually, even in this day and age there still remain traces in Christianity of the common ancestry with Islam in regard to the accepted norms of modest dress for Christian women as ordained by her Creator. In the above figure we have an example of the sort of dress codes observed by Christian nuns. We are strangely amazed to find that it is almost the striking similarity it bears to the sort of outfit, which most Muslim women wear. Why is that? Well, although there are quite a number of very pronounced differences between Biblical and Qur’anic laws in this regard, let us start with the following:
What the New Testament has to say:
1 Timothy 2:11-14 “Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.”
1 Corinthians 14:34 “Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.”
1 Corinthians 11:5-10: “But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, for as much as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.”
1 Corinthians 11:13: “Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God (with her head) uncovered?”
What the Old Testament has to say:
Genesis 3:12-16 “And the man (Adam) said, The woman (Eve) whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.”
Leviticus 12:2-5 “Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a MALE child: then she shall be unclean SEVEN DAYS; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. And she shall then continue in the blood of her purifying THIRTY THREE days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled. But if she bear a FEMALE child, then she shall be unclean TWO WEEKS, as in her separation: and she shall continue in the blood of her purifying SIXTY SIX days.“
Ecclesiastics 7:26-28 “And I find more bitter than death the woman who is a snare, whose heart is a trap and whose hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but the sinner she will ensnare….while I was still searching but not finding, I found one upright man among a thousand but not one upright woman among them all”.
Leviticus 15:19-30 “And if a woman have an issue (her period/menses), [and] her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put apart seven days: and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even.
And every thing that she lieth upon in her separation shall be unclean: every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sat upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. And if it [be] on [her] bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even. And if any man lie with her at all, and her flowers be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and all the bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days out of the time of her separation, or if it run beyond the time of her separation; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness shall be as the days of her separation: she [shall be] unclean. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her separation: and whatsoever she sitteth upon shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her separation. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And the priest shall offer the one [for] a sin offering, and the other [for] a burnt offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness.” SEE ALSO WOMEN IN THE BIBLE
In other words, the Bible teaches us that:
1. Women should learn in silence and subjugation.
2. Women should not teach.
3. Women should not have authority over men but should remain silent.
4. Adam and Eve were not equal in sin. Adam was not deceived but Eve was.
5. Women are commanded to be under obedience to men. God ordained that men shall for all time rule over women
6.Women must keep silent in Churches. It is shameful for them to open their mouths therein. If they have a question they should ask their husbands before going to church and then their husbands will ask for them in the church.
7. A woman should neither pray nor profess with her head uncovered.
8. If a woman prays with her head uncovered then she might as well shave her head.
9. Man was created in the image and glory of God, and Woman was created in the glory of Man, thus Man must have power over her.
10. Any woman who delivers a male baby shall be unclean for one week. But any woman who delivers a female baby shall be unclean for TWO weeks. Thus, females make their mothers DOUBLY unclean as compared to males.
11. While it is possible to find one upright man in every thousand, it is impossible to find even one single upright woman in every thousand
12. Woman is a snare, her heart is a trap, and her hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but she will ensnare the sinner.
13. If a woman had her period and touches a chair or a bed or anything else then that item immediately becomes unclean. Anyone who then touches those things shall also become unclean. They must then bathe themselves and wash their clothes because they have touched an item that a menstruous woman has touched.
What the canonized saints of Christianity said about women:
“Woman is a daughter of falsehood, a sentinel of Hell, the enemy of peace; through her Adam lost paradise” (St. John Demascene)
“Woman is the instrument which the devil uses to gain possession of our souls” (St. Cyprian)
“Woman is the fountain of the arm of the devil, her voice is the hissing of the serpent” (St. Anthony)
“Woman has the poison of an asp, the malice of a dragon” (St. Gregory)
St. Tertullian, while he was talking to his ‘best beloved sisters’ in the faith, he said, “Do you not know that you are each an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live too. You are the Devil’s gateway: You are the unsealer of the forbidden tree: You are the first deserter of the divine law: You are she who persuaded him whom the devil wasn’t valiant enough to attack. You destroyed so easily God’s image, man.” Once again, St. Augustine wrote to a friend, “What is the difference whether it is in a wife or a mother; it is still Eve the temptress that we must beware of in any woman.”
Centuries later, St. Thomas Aquinas still considered women as defective, “As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active force in the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of woman comes from a defect in the active force or from some material indisposition, or even from some external influence.”
Orthodox Jewish men in their daily morning prayer recite “Blessed be God King of the universe that Thou has not made me a woman.” The women, on the other hand, thank God every morning for “making me according to Thy will”
According to the Jewish Talmud, “women are exempt from the study of the Torah.” In the first century C.E.,Rabbi Eliezer said: “If any man teaches his daughter Torah it is as though he taught her lechery”
According to Rabbi Dr. Menachem M. Brayer (Professor of Biblical Literature at Yeshiva University) in his book ‘The Jewish woman in Rabbinic literature’, it was the custom of Jewish women to go out in public with a head covering which, sometimes, even covered the whole face leaving one eye free. He quotes some famous ancient Rabbis saying, “It is not like the daughters of Israel to walk out with heads uncovered” and “Cursed be the man who lets the hair of his wife be seen…a woman who exposes her hair for self-adornment brings poverty.” Rabbinic law forbids the recitation of blessings or prayers in the presence of a bareheaded married woman since uncovering the woman’s hair is considered “nudity” . Dr. Brayer also mentions, that “During the Tannaitic period the Jewish woman’s failure to cover her head was considered an affront to her modesty. When her head was uncovered she might be fined four hundred zuzim for this offense.” Dr. Brayer also explains that veil of the Jewish woman wasn’t always considered a sign of modesty. Sometimes, the veil symbolized a state of distinction and luxury rather than modesty. The veil personified the dignity and superiority of noble women. It, also, represented a woman’s inaccessibility as a sanctified possession of her husband. It is clear in the Old Testament that uncovering a woman’s head was a great disgrace and that’s why the priest had to uncover the suspected adulteress in her trial by ordeal (Numbers 5:16-18).
St. Tertullian in his famous treatise ‘On the Veiling of Virgins’ wrote, “Young women, you wear your veils out on the streets, so you should wear them in the church, you wear them when you are among strangers, then wear them among your brothers…” Among the Canon laws of the Catholic Church today, there is a law that require women to cover their heads in church.
Some Christian denominations, such as the Amish and the Mennonites for example, keep their women veiled to the present day. The reason for the veil, as offered by their Church leaders, is “The head covering is a symbol of woman’s subjection to the man and to God”: The same logic introduced by St. Paul in the New Testament.
Russian Orthodox women are expected to wear a head covering when in the church. Most don’t outside of it in America, but many in Russia do, along with women in other eastern Orthodox countries Europe.
These are only a small sampling. For many more similar quotations please obtain a copy of the 70 page book”Women in Islam Versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & The Reality,” By Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
Furthermore, according to the Old Testament, a childless widow must marry her husband’s brother, even if he is already married and regardless of her consent, so that she might bear a child from him (Genesis 38).
Additionally, according to the Bible:
“If a man happens to meet a virgin who is not pledged to be married and rapes her and they are discovered, he shall pay the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver. He must marry the girl, for he has violated her. He can never divorce her as long as he lives” Deuteronomy 22:28-30
One must ask a simple question here, who is really punished, the man who raped the woman or the woman who was raped? What is to prevent someone from finding the best looking woman in town, raping her, telling everyone about it, and then having the courts force her to be his wife for the rest of her life?
According to Numbers 27:1-11, widows and sisters don’t inherit at all. Daughters can inherit only if their deceased father had no sons.
So what is the standpoint of the Qur’an with regard to women? Women are indeed commanded by Allah to cover their heads and wear modest clothing, however, in Islam this is not a sign of denigration or subjugation to men, rather, it is a sign of chastity, modesty, and the fear of God. It also designates this woman to all men who might deal with her that she is to be dealt with respect. This could be compared to the situation in the West when one meets a nun or priest, how the nun’s habit and the priest’s robes signal those who meet them, that this person does not condone vulgarity of speech or evil actions.
This is made apparent in the Noble Qur’an in Surrah Al-Ahzab:
“… that is closer to their being recognized so that they shall not be abused, and Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful”
[Al-Ahzab(33):59, (also see Noor(24):31)]
What about the rights of women in Islam?
Are they indeed, as the popular propaganda would have us believe, “second class citizens”? Let us read the Qur’an:
“And they (women) have rights similar to those of men over them in a just manner.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Baqarah(2):228)
“And their Lord has heard them (and He says): Verily! I suffer not the work of any worker, male or female, to be lost. You proceed one from another. So those who fled and were driven forth from their homes and suffered damage for My cause, and fought and were slain, verily I shall remit their evil deeds from them and verily I shall bring them into Gardens underneath which rivers flow. A reward from Allah. And with Allah is the fairest of rewards.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, A’al-Umran(3):195)
“And covet not the thing in which Allah has made some of you excel others. Unto men a fortune from that which they have earned, and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned. (Envy not one another) but ask Allah of His bounty. Verily! Allah is Knower of all things.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):32)
“Unto the men (of a family) belongs a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much, a legal share.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):77)
“And whoso does good works, whether of male or female, and he (or she) is a believer, such will enter paradise and they will not be wronged the dint in a date stone.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):124)
“And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and they establish worship and they pay the poor-due, and they obey Allah and His messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Tauba(9):71)
“Whosoever does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily We shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nahil(16):97)
“And of His signs is this: He created for you spouses from yourselves that you might find tranquility in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo, herein indeed are signs for folk who reflect.”
(Translation of the The Noble Qur’an, Al-Room(30):21)
“Whoso does an ill deed, he will be repaid the like thereof, while whoso does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, (all) such will enter the Garden, where they will be nourished without stint.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Mumin(40):40)
In the Qur’an, both, Adam and Eve share the blame for eating from the tree. This can be seen in the Qur’an in such verses as Al-Baqarah(2):36, Al-A’araf(7):22-24.
They were also both forgiven by God Almighty for this sin. Actually, in one verse of the Qur’an (Taha(20):121), Adam is specifically blamed.
Islam encourages spouses to take each other’s council and to seek mutual agreement in matters which affect them, for example, in the Qur’an, Al-Bakarah(2):233 we read: “Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No one should be charged beyond their capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child.
And on the (father’s) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if you wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provided that you pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what you do.”
Husbands are commanded to treat their wives with kindness and respect. In Al-Nissa(4)-19 we read “…But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein Allah has placed much good.”
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The best believers are the best in conduct, and the best of you are those who are best to their wives.” When Muhammad (pbuh) first became the prophet of Islam, the Pagans of Arabia had inherited a similar disregard for woman as had been passed down among their Jewish and Christian neighbors. It was considered so disgraceful among them to be blessed with a female child that they would go so far as to bury this baby alive in order to avoid the disgrace associated with female children.
Through the teachings of Islam, Muhammad (pbuh) put a swift and resounding end to this evil practice. Not only did he severely discourage and condemn this act but he also used to teach them to respect and cherish their daughters and mothers as partners and sources of salvation for the men of their family:
AbuSa’id al-Khudri narrated: “The Prophet (pbuh) said: If anyone cares for three daughters, disciplines them, marries them (to other men), and does good by them, he will enter Paradise.” (Narrated by Abu-Dawood)
Abdullah the son of Abbas narrated: “The Prophet (pbuh) said: If anyone has a female child, and does not bury her alive, or slight her, or prefer his male children over her, Allah will bring him into Paradise.” (Narrated by Abu-Dawood)
Muhammad (pbuh) is also sited in “Sahih Muslim” as saying:
“Whoever maintains two girls till they attain maturity, he and I will come on the Day of Resurrection like this; and he joined his fingers”.
In other words, if one loves the messenger of Allah and wishes to be with him on the day of resurrection in heaven, then they should do good by their daughters.
The woman in Hijab is the wife of Hashim Amla (South African Cricket Player). MA SHA ALLAH! Love her confidence.
May Allah Subhana Taala Bless her and reward her. Ameen Suma Ameen
✿ A woman modestly dressed is like a pearl in its shell.
✿ The value of a woman rests in her level of Taqwa (Piousness) and good deeds, not in her apparent looks and wordly earnings.
♥ ALHAMDULILLAH ♥
To learn more about the rights of women in Islam, the issue of modest dress codes, the issue of polygamy, and many other issues which can not be covered here, I highly recommend the following books:
1.Women in Islam Versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & The Reality, By Dr.
Sherif Abdel Azeem, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
2.“The Status of Women in Islam,” by Dr. Jamal A. Badawi, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
3.“Women’s rights in Islam,” by Lea Zaitoun, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
4.“Gender Equity in Islam,” by Dr. Jamal Badawi, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
Brayer M. Menachem. Psychosocial Perspective (New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 1986)
Henning M. Clara. ” Cannon Law and the Battle of the Sexes” in Rosemary R. Ruether, (Ed), Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974)
Kendath Thena. “Memories of an Orthodox youth” in Susannah Heschel (Ed.) On being a Jewish Feminist, (New York: Schocken Books, 1983)
Kraybill B. Donald. The riddle of the Amish Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,1989)
Swidler J. Leonard. Women in Judaism: the Status of Women in Formative Judaism, Metuchen, (N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976)