Superior Days For Righteous Deeds
Shaykh Abdullah Ibn Abdur-Rahman al-Jibreen
The Superiority And Virtue Of The First Ten Days Of The Month Of Zulhijjah
And The Deeds Legislated In These Days from the Gulf Times March 1999
Verily, the praise belongs to Allah, the Most High, and May the Blessings of Allah and Peace be upon His Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, all of them.
It is narrated from Ibn Abbaas (RAA) that the Prophet (PBUH) of said: “There are no days in which righteous deeds done in them are more beloved to Allah than these days, ie the ten days (of Zul-Hijjah). They said: O Messenger of Allah, not even Jihaad in the path of Allah? He said: Not even Jihaad in the Path of Allah, the Most High, except if a man goes out (for Jihaad) with his self and his wealth,
then he doesn’t return with anything from that.”
(Al-Bukhari, Abu Daawood and others. The exact wording is that of Abu Daawood)
It is narrated from Ibn Umar that the Prophet Muhammad (Blessings of Allah and Peace be upon him) said:
“There aren’t any days greater, nor any days in which deeds done in them are more beloved to Allah, the Most High, than these ten days (of Zul-Hijjah).
So, increase in them the saying of Tahleel (La Ilaaha illa Allah), and Takbeer (Allah Akbar) and Tahmeed (al-Hamdu li-llah)” [Musnad Imaam Ahmad]
The Types of Good Deeds in These Ten Days:
First: The performance of Haj and Umrah, and these are the best of deeds that may be done.
And what indicates their superiority are a number of Ahaadith, one of which is the saying of the Prophet (PBUH).
Performance of Umrah is an expiration of the sins committed between it and the previous Umrah,
and the reward of the Haj which is accepted by Allah, the Most High, is nothing but Paradise.
(Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Second: Fasting during these days – as many of them as may be easy (for one to fast); Especially the Day of Arafah. There is no doubt that the act of fasting is one of the best deeds, and
it is from what Allah, the Most High, has chosen for himself, as in the Hadith Qudsee:
Fasting is for Me, and it is I who give reward for it. Verily, someone gives up his sexual passion, his food
and his drink for My sake…”
(Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Maalik, at-Tirmidhee, Nasaa’ee and Ibn Maajah)
Also, from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree who said that the Messenger of Allah said: No servant (of Allah, the Most High) fasts one day in the Path of Allah, except that Allah, the Most High, removes his face from the Fire because of it (the distance of travelling) seventy years. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
From Abu Qatadah that the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said: Fasting the Day of Arafah will be credited with Allah by forgiving one’s sins of the previous year and the following year. (Muslim)
Third: At-Takbeer (Allah Akbar) and adh-Dhikr (the remembrance of Allah through different words of praise and glorification) in these (ten) days, Allah said “And mention the name of Allah
on the appointed days”(12:28).
This has been explained (by some) to mean the ten days (of Zul-Hijjah), and the scholars consider it desirable to increase adh-Dhikr in these days, based upon the hadith of Ibn Umar narrated by
Ahmad, which contains the words:
… so increase in these days the Tahleel and Takbeer and Tahmeed…
It is reported about Ibn Umar and Abu Hurairah that: the two of them used to go out to the market place during the ten days (of Zul-Hijjah) saying: Allahu Akbar, causing the people also to say it.
Ishaaq narrates from the scholars of the Taabi’een that in these ten days they used to say:
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar Laa Ilaaha illa ‘llah Wa ‘llahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar Wa li’llahi alhamd
It is a beloved act to raise the voice when saying the Takbeer in the markets, the houses, the streets, the Masjids and other places, because of the saying of Allah, the Most High, in Surah al-
Hajj, verse 37: “… that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to you”
The saying of Takbeer in congregation, ie everyone pronouncing the Takbeer with one voice, is not permissible since this has not been transmitted (to us) from the early generations of the
Sahabah and those who followed their ways.
Verily, the Sunnah is for everyone to say the Takbeer individually. And this is (generally) applicable to Dhikr and supplications, except if the person doesn’t know what to say. In that case he may repeat after someone else until he learns (the words to be said).
It is also permissible to make Dhikr with all the different wording of Takbeer and Tahmeed and Tasbeeh, and the rest of the Islamic legislated supplications (from the Qur’an and Sunnah).
Fourth: At-Tawbah (repentance) and abstaining from disobedience and all types of sins,
since forgiveneand mercyare the results of deeds. Disobedience is the cause of being far away (from Allah, the Most High) and repulsion, while obedience is the cause of being near (to Allah,
Most High) and His love. In the hadith of Abu Hurairah he said that the Prophet said: Verily Allah has a sense of Ghaira, and Allah’s sense of ghaira is provoked when a person does that which Allah has prohibited. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Fifth: Doing plenty of voluntary (nafl) righteous deeds of worship like Prayer, Charity, Jihaad, reading the Qur’an, Commanding what is Good and Forbidding what is Evil, and other such deeds.
Verily, these are amongst the deeds that are multiplied in these days. It is during these days that even deeds that are less preferred, are superior and more beloved to Allah than superior deeds done at other times. (These deeds are superior) even to al-Jihaad – which is one of the most superior of all deeds – except in the case of one whose horse is killed and his blood is spilled (loss of life in Jihaad).
Sixth: It is legislated in these days to make at-Takbeer al-Mutlaq at all times of night and day until the time of the Eid Prayer. Also, at-Takbeer al-Muqayyad is legislated, and it is done after
the (five) obligatory prayers that are performed in congregation. This begins from Dawn (Fajr) on the Day of Arafah (the 9th of Zul-Hijjah) for those not performing Haj, and from Noon (Zhur) on
the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Zul-Hijjah) for those performing Haj (pilgrims); and it continues until Asr prayer on the last day of the days of Tash-reeq (13th of Zul-Hijjah).
Seventh: The slaughtering of a sacrificial animal (Adhiyah) is also legislated for the Day of Sacrifice (10th) and the Days of Tashreeq (11th, 12th and 13th). This is the Sunnah of our father
Ibraaheem – when Allah, the Most High, redeemed Ibraaheem’s son by the great sacrifice (of an animal in his place). It is authentically reported that The Prophet Muhammad slaughtered (sacrificed) two horned rams, black and white in colour, and said Takbeer (Allahu Akbar), and placed his foot on their sides (while slaughtering them). (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Eighth: Offering animal as Udhyia It has been narrated from Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said: If you see the Hilal (new moon) of Zul-Hijjah, and any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from his hair and his nails. (Muslim and others). And in one narration, he said: .Then he should not cut (anything) from his hair, nor from his nails, until he performs the sacrifice.
Perhaps this is because of the similarity with the one who is bringing a sacrificial animal for slaughter (in Haj). As Allah, the Most High, said: And do not shave your heads until the Hady (sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice…
The apparent meaning of this prohibition is that it is particularly for the one whom the sacrifice is for, and does not include the wife or children, unless there is an individual sacrifice for one of them. There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching it, even if hairs may fall out.
Ninth: It is incumbent for the Muslim (who is not performing Haj) to make every effort to perform the Eid Prayer wherever it is performed, and to be present for the Khutbah and benefit.
He must know the wisdom behind the legislation of this Eid Celebration). It is a day of thankfulness and performing deeds of righteousness. So, he must not make it a day of wildness,
pride and vanity. He should not make it a season for disobedience and increase in the forbidden things like music and singing, uncontrolled amusement, intoxicants and the like – those things which could cause the cancellation of the good deeds done in these days (of Zul-Hijjah).
Tenth: After what has been mentioned, it is fitting that every Muslim, male and female, take advantage of these days by obeying Allah, the Most High, remembering Him, thanking Him, fulfilling all the obligatory duties, and staying far away from the prohibited things. He must take full advantage of this season, and the open display of Allah’s gifts, to attain the pleasure of his Lord.
Surely, Allah, the Most High, is the One Who grants success, and He is the Guide to the Straight Path. And may the blessings of Allah, the Most High, and peace be upon Muhammad and his family and companions!
Ghaira: A sense of honour and prestige, and the anger caused by its being violated.
At-Takbeer al-Mutlaq: the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) which is unrestricted to specific times or any specific form.
At-Takbeer al-Muqayyad: The Takbeer which is done at a particular time and in a specific manner. Zull Hujjah (Arabic) : Dhul Hijjah (Eng.)
Excellence of Good Hopes
“(And the man who believed said:) `… and my affair I leave it to Allah. Verily, Allah is the All-Seer of (His) slaves.’ So Allah saved him from the evils that they plotted (against him)”. (40:44,45)
440. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah says: `I am just as My slave thinks of Me when he remembers Me.’ By Allah! Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slave than one of you who unexpectedly finds in the desert his lost camel. `He who comes closer to Me one span, I come closer to him a cubit; and he who comes closer to Me a cubit, I come closer to him a fathom; and if he comes to Me walking, I come to him running”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith highlights the merits of expecting good treatment of Allah. But this has to be backed by good actions, in the same way as one can hope for good results after ploughing and sowing seeds. It is obvious that one who accomplishes good deeds will expect good consequences, and one who does evil deeds will expect evil consequences. Allah will treat people according to their expectation that are founded on their actions, and the reward will match their deeds.
441. Jabir bin `Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard the Prophet (PBUH) saying three days before his death: “Let none of you die unless he has good expectations from Allah”. [Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith also tells us that one should always perform good deeds because no one knows the time of his death. At the time of death one must entertain hope for Allah’s Pardon and Mercy which cannot be possible without good actions. Thus, this Hadith conveys the same meanings of the following Ayah:
“And die not except in a state of Islam (as Muslims)”. (3:102).
Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah, the Exalted, has said: `O son of adam, I forgive you as long as you pray to Me and hope for My forgiveness, whatever sins you have committed. O son of ‘Adam, I do not care if your sins reach the height of the heaven, then you ask for my forgiveness, I would forgive you. O son of ‘Adam, if you come to Me with an earth load of sins, and meet Me associating nothing to Me, I would match it with an earthload of forgiveness.”’
1. What it really means is that if sins of a Muslim, committed in ignorance and carelessness, become so numerous that in stacks touch the heights of skies, he should not lose hope in Allah’s Mercy. If he repents wholeheartedly for his sins, makes penitence for them and begs Allah’s forgiveness, he will certainly find Allah’s Mercy open for him.
2. Shirk (polytheism) is an absolutely unpardonable sin. All other sins, how many and how grave they may be, can be forgiven by Allah. He will pardon them if He likes and send the sinful persons straight to Jannah, or keep them for a while in Hell and then shift them to Jannah. In any case, the punishment of Hell will not be eternal for them, as it is for the Mushriks (polytheist).
Allah, the Exalted, says:
“Say: O `Ibadi (My slaves) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful”. (39:53)
“And never do We requit in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers)”. (34:17)
‘(Say:) `Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies (believes not in the Oneness of Allah, and in His Messengers), and turns away (from the truth and obedience of Allah)”. (20:48)
“And My Mercy embraces all things”. (7:156)
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying, “When Allah created the creatures, He wrote in the Book, which is with Him over His Throne: `Verily, My Mercy prevailed over My Wrath”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “(Allah wrote) `My Mercy dominated My Wrath”.
Still another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “(Allah wrote) `My Mercy surpasses My Wrath”.
Commentary: Imam Al-Khattabi states that here the word “Kitab” (translated here as `Book’) means the decision of Almighty Allah which He has already made, an instance of which is the following Verse of the Noble Qur’an:
“Allah has decreed: `Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious”. (58:21).
In this Ayah the Arabic word “Kataba” is used in the sense of “Qada’ (decided);” or the word “Kataba” signifies “Lauh Mahfooz” on which He has recorded everything. Almighty Allah is on the ‘Arsh’ (the Throne of Allah) and this Book is with Him. (Fath Al-Bari, Kitab At-Tauhid, Bab: Wa kana Arshuhu `alal-Ma’.)
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah has divided mercy into one hundred parts; and He retained with Him ninety-nine parts, and sent down to earth one part. Through this one part creatures deal with one another with compassion, so much so that an animal lifts its hoof over its young lest it should hurt it”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah has one hundred mercies, out of which He has sent down only one for jinn, mankind, animals and insects, through which they love one another and have compassion for one another; and through it, wild animals care for their young. Allah has retained ninety-nine mercies to deal kindly with His slaves on the Day of Resurrection.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Another narration in Muslim is reported: by Salman Al-Farisi: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah has hundred mercies, out of which one mercy is used by his creation for mutual love and affection. Ninety-nine mercies are kept for the Day of Resurrection.”
Another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah created one hundred units of mercy on the Day He created the heavens and the earth. Each one of them can contain all that is between the heaven and the earth. Of them, he put one on earth, through which a mother has compassion for her children and animals and birds have compassion for one another. On the Day of Resurrection, He will perfect and complete His Mercy”. (That is He will use all the hundred units of mercy for his slaves on that Day).
1. We learn from this Hadith that kind and compassionate treatment is liked by Allah and is in fact His Blessing and Benevolence. This is the reason He has given a part of it to His creatures, and a person who is so hard-hearted, that he is not even aware of it has a defect which is extremely displeasing to Allah. Moreover, it is a sign that such a person is deprived of Divine blessing and mercy.
2. On the Day of Resurrection, Almighty Allah will bestow upon the believers hundred mercies. This news has great hopes and joy for His slaves.
. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “If a believer had full knowledge of the chastisement of Allah, none would covet His Jannah; and were an infidel to know the Mercy Allah has, none would despair of His Jannah”.
5. Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Jannah is nearer to you than your shoelace, and so is the (Hell) Fire”.[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: Jannah is close to him who adopts the path of righteousness and he can easily attain it. Its opposite case is also equally true. He is close to Hell who takes the path of evil. Thus, this Hadith has an inducement for virtue and warning against evil.
Marriage in Islam: Considered from a Legal Point of View
From a legal point of view Islam views marraige as an ‘Aqd or Contract.
Like any other contract the marriage contract requires full and free consent of the parties concerned. The parents or guardian of any of the parties may give advice, choose a marriage partner or use persuasion, but the final decision to enter into a marriage must be the result of a free choice on the part of each partner, even though this freely made choice may consist of nothing but accepting the choice of one’s parents or guardian. This right of free choice is fairly well recognized in the case of men but (unfortunately) not in the case of women. In the Holy Qur’an we read:
“Do not inherit women against their will” (4:19)
And in Hadith we find traditions like the following:
“Khansa bint Khidhan who had a previous marriage related that when her father married her and she disapproved of that, she went to the Messenger of God and he revoked her marriage.”
(Bukhari, Ibn Majah)
“A [girl who was not married] came to the Messenger of God and mentioned that her father had married her against her will, so the Prophet allowed her to exercise her choice.”
(Abu Da’ud, on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas)
Just as any adult can enter into any legal contract, so also any adult man or woman can arrange his or her own marriage, provided that during the process of arranging the marriage there is no sexual contact, in other words, there is no dating in the North American style. It is well known that Khadijah, the Prophet’s first wife arranged her own marriage with the Prophet. It is true that this happened before sayyadna Muhammad received prophethood. But if an arrangement by a woman of her own marriage were so shameful in the eyes of Allah as it is in the eyes of some Muslims, then He would have somehow prevented His Messenger from such a marriage. Moreover, there are some ahadith which show that even after receiving prophethood sayyadna Muhammad did not disapprove of women arranging their own marriage.We quote here one such hadith:
“A woman came to the Messenger of God and offered herself to him (in marriage). When she had stood for a long time (without receiving an answer) a man got up and said: Messenger of God! Marry her to me if you have no need of her. He asked the man if he had anything to give her as dower (marriage gift), and when he replied that he had nothing but the lower garment he was wearing, the Prophet said: Look for something, even though it be an iron ring. Then when the man had searched and found nothing, God’s Messenger asked him whether he new anything of the Qur’an. When the man replied that he knew Surah so and so and Surah so and so, God’s Messenger said: Go away, I give her to you in marriage. Teach her some of the Qur’an.
“(Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Sahl bin Sa’d)
In this hadith a woman is arranging her own marriage but the Prophet does not rebuke her or admonish her in any other way. Thus while it may not be the best thing for a woman to do, she can if she wishes, make a marriage proposal for herself without being blameworthy in the eyes of God.What are the terms involved in the marriage contract? This contract involves two things: First, a gift from the husband to the wife, which may be a sum of money, an object of some value such as a ring or such non-material things as acceptance of Islam or teaching a part of the Qur’an(1). Second, a commitment from both parties to try to make life physically comfortable for each other and to provide emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness to each other, with the responsibility for taking care of economic needs generally falling on the shoulders of the man.(2)
At the time of the marriage both partners should have the fullest possible intention of keeping the marriage commitment for life, although under some extreme circumstances it may perhaps be possible to enter into a marriage contract on a temporary basis.(3)
Even though the marriage commitment is for life, should it so happen that after marriage the two partners find it impossible to live together the Islamic law provides for the termination of the marriage contract. The termination of the marriage contract can be initiated by any party which has decided that the other party cannot or will not satisfactorily fulfill the commitment implicit in the marriage contract, namely, to provide enough physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness. It is evident that the judgment as to whether a marriage partner is getting enough satisfaction out of his or her marriage is a subjective one and therefore belongs entirely to the partner himself or herself. Consequently, for the dissolution of marriage Islam does not require that a partner prove to some authority such as a court that there has indeed been a failing on the part of the other partner in the fulfillment of his or her marital obligations. It is enough for the dissatisfied partner to say that he or she can no longer love or respect the other partner to be able to continue living with him or her. Third parties such as relatives, the community, etc. can and indeed should (4:35) get involved at some stage of marriage difficulties and try to prevent the break-up of the marriage through counseling, etc.; but they cannot oblige any marriage partner to remain in the marriage bond, as for example the catholic church or the Hindu tradition that obliges couples to remain tied in marriage until one of the partners dies.
A man can on his own dissolve the marriage by following a prescribed procedure, the details of which need not concern us here. A woman can dissolve the marriage by asking the husband to divorce her and if he refuses can go to court which should arrange the terms of dissolution as regards to compensation and order the husband to dissolve the marriage.(4) To avoid this procedure the woman can include in the marriage contract the condition that she can dissolve the marriage without having to go to court.
The party which initiates the divorce may have to pay some compensation to the other party. This compensation may be the return of the marriage gift in the case of a woman initiating the divorce(5) and payment of an alimony in the case of a man taking that step.
(6) Again, the details of these matters are out of the scope of this article.
The degree by which the husband has greater right
In the above outline of the legal view of marriage in Islam, man and women are completely equal partners except in the following respects:
1) Both parties make the equal responsibility to provide physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness to each other, but men generally have the added responsibility to provide for the economic needs of the wife.
2) In case the husband initiates divorce, he is obliged by religious law to pay some maintenance expenses (2:241). This prescribed alimony belongs to the wife by right. However, when the woman initiates the divorce she does not pay any compensation to the husband as requirement of religious law; she need at most return part of what she received from the husband as dower if such payment is helpful in an amicable settlement. (2:229)
3) A man can divorce his wife on his own while a woman needs to go through court or introduce into the marriage a clause giving her the right to divorce her husband.
In regard to the above differences the Holy Qur’an says:
“And (wives) shall have rights similar to those (the husbands have) over them, in accordance with justice, (except that) husbands’ rights are a degree greater.” (2:228)”Husbands are guardians (qawwamun) of wives because God has favoured some more than others and because they (i.e. husbands generally) spend out of their wealth.” (4:34)
The first of the above two Qur’anic statements occurs in a long passage dealing with divorce and should be understood in relation to that context. The degree by which husband’s rights are greater should therefore be understood as the degree by which the husband is freer than the wife to break the marriage bond. This, however, is not a very big degree since as stated earlier the wife can get out of the marriage bond whenever she wants to, practically without giving any reason. It is only that she has to follow a more indirect procedure.The second Qur’anic statement refers to the greater responsibility husbands generally have as protectors and providers of women and to the greater say this gives them in making decisions.
The fact that husbands’ rights are a degree greater does not effect the claim that in Islam men and women have equal rights, since men’s greater rights within the marriage relationship do not mean that men also enjoy greater rights outside that relationship and since within the marriage relationship men’s greater rights are completely justified by their greater responsibility. We must remember here that whenever we talk about members of a society having equal rights it is never precluded that members of that society cannot freely enter into terminable arrangements in which some take greater responsibility and therefore also have greater rights. Equality of rights can only be asserted on the assumption of equality of responsibility. This principle sometimes works in favour of women. For example, as mothers women give much more to children than do men as fathers and so Islam recognizes greater rights of mothers over children than of fathers except where economic considerations demand otherwise.
(1) See the hadith quoted earlier in which the dower for marriage consists of the husband teaching a portion of the Holy Qur’an to the wife. In the following hadith it consists of the husband accepting Islam:
“Umm Sulaym had become a Muslim before Abu Talha and when he asked her in marriage she said: “I have become a Muslim. so if you also become one I shall marry you.” Abu Talha accepted Islam and that was the dower arranged between them.” (Nasa’i on the authority of Anas)
This hadith also supports the view that men and women can arrange their own marriage.
(2) See Qur’an 4:34. The wife can, however, with her own free will choose to share part of the economic burden. Khadijah helped the Prophet and Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, helped her poor husband Zubayr.
(3) This is the shi’a view. Sunni traditions admit that temporary marriage was at some point in time allowed in Islam but say that this was later forbidden.
(4) See Qur’an 2:229 in the light of the following hadith:
“The wife of Thabit bin Qays came to the Prophet and said, “Messenger of God, I do not reproach Thabit bin Qays in respect of character or religion but I do not want to be guilty of kufran regarding Islam (meaning that she did not like him enough as a marriage partner and so was afraid she might not give him the respect and love due to a husband).” God’s Messenger asked her if she would give back to Thabit his garden, and when she replied that she would, he told him to accept the garden and declare the divorce.” (Bukhari, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Ibn Abbas)
(5) See the hadith quoted in the previous note. The wife is not obligated by religious law to pay the compensation and need only do so as part of a settlement with the husband. (Qur’an 2:229)(6) “For divorced women a reasonable maintenance (should be provided). This is a duty on the righteous.” (Qur’an 2:241)
by Dr. Ahmad Shafaat (1984)
The Qur’an (Arabic: القرآن al-qur’ān, literally “the recitation”; also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran or Al-Qur’ān) is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, and consider the original Arabic text to be the final revelation of God. Islam holds that the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad by the angel Gibraele (Gabriel) over a period of 23 years. Muslims regard the Qur’an as the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam, regarded in Islam as the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham),the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (Psalms), and the Injeel (Gospel).The aforementioned books are not explicitly included in the Qur’an, but are recognized therein.The Qur’an also refers to many events from Jewish and Christian scriptures, some of which are retold in comparatively distinctive ways from the Bible and the Torah, while obliquely referring to other events described explicitly in those texts.
The Qur’an itself expresses that it is the book of guidance. Therefore it rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events, the text instead typically placing emphasis on the moral significance of an event rather than its narrative sequence. It does not describe natural facts in a scientific manner but teaches that natural and supernatural events are signs of God.
The Qur’an was written down by Muhammad’s companions while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized in the time of Uthman, the third caliph. The Qur’an in its actual form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in Western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance and that historically controversy over the content of the Qur’an has never become a main point. Therefore all Muslims, Sunni or Shia use the same Qur’an.