Monthly Archives: October 2015
First I shall state some historical and cultural facts deemed helpful to reach the truth about the marriage under discussion.
1. From an article discussing the Age of consent historically, it gathered information from many acknowledged sources like the “Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society”, “Children and Youth in History – Age of Consent Laws” by Stephen Robertson, University of Sydney-Australia, and “The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome” by Lelis, Arnold , Percy, William A. , & Verstraete, Beert C.; we read the following:
In Ancient Rome, it was very common for girls to marry and have children shortly after the onset of puberty. In the 12th century A.D. “Gratian”: the influential founder of Canon law in medieval Europe, accepted age of puberty for marriage to be between 12 and 14 but acknowledged consent to be meaningful if the children were older than 7.1 There were authorities that said that consent could take place earlier. Marriage would then be valid as long as neither of the two parties annulled the marital agreement before reaching puberty, or if they had already consummated the marriage. It should be noted that Judges honored marriages based on mutual consent at ages younger than 7, in spite of what Gratian had said; there are recorded marriages of 2 and 3 years old. The American colonies followed the English tradition, and the law was more of a guide. For example, Mary Hathaway (Virginia, 1689) was only 9 when she was married to William Williams. Sir Edward Coke (England, 17th century) made it clear that: “the marriage of girls under 12 was normal, and the age at which a girl who was a wife was eligible for a dower from her husband’s estate was 9 even though her husband be only four years old.” The French Napoleonic Code established an age of consent of 11 years in 1791, which was raised to 13 in 1863. Portugal, Spain, Denmark and the Swiss cantons, initially set the age of consent at 10–12 years and then raised it to between 13 and 16 years in the second half of the 19th century. Historically, the English common law set the age of consent to range from 10 to 12. In the United States, by the 1880s, most states set the age of consent at 10-12, and in one state, Delaware, the age of consent was only 7. A New York Times article states that it was still aged 7 in Delaware in 1895. [End of adaptation from the article].
One famous example is Alexios II Komnenos (1169-1183 AD) who married Agnes of France. William II; Archbishop of Tyre; witnessed the wedding and reported that Agnes was eight on her arrival at Constantinople, while Alexios was thirteen. Though according to most 12th century views; she was three years too young for marriage; but the pope authorized the marriage and approved to it.
The Methodology of Preaching Islam
Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H. said: “Convey on my behalf; even one verse.”
Unlike what many Muslims think; Preaching Islam is not about converting others to Islam, making presentations about Islam, giving lessons in mosques, having the prophetic traditions hanged on billboards in non-Muslim countries, etc. Those acts neither improve people’s understanding of Islam nor even urge them to respect it as an important religion. If by coincidence they …do; it is always individual cases and their admiration is mostly directed towards the presenter, while their view of Islam remains the same. All people understand that any presenter is well trained on attracting them to whatever he presents and beautifying his commodity even if it were the most terrible. Religion is not a commodity; so please don’t treat it like one. In my opinion; presenting Islam in an attractive manner is not the proper way of preaching Islam and it has many negative impacts on the presenter him/herself. From what I have seen so far; they think so high of themselves and they can’t even notice it. Please understand that the best preachment you can give is the one you give to yourself. When you repair your own defects and immoralities; you will automatically teach others about Islam through real practice, and the outcome shall be amazing to the farthest extent.
Many Muslim youths fall in the widely spread nets of false sheikhs. They are amazed when they hear that they have converted too many people to Islam by their preachments in non-Muslim countries. They feel so small and unworthy of any reward in the hereafter for not being like those so-called sheikhs. Know that the effort you make inside your country in your daily job sincerely while enduring all hardships, showing patience and dealing with others in the best manner like the prophet P.B.U.H. did; serves Islam millions of times more than those fancy sheikhs do. Islam doesn’t need preachers who speak about it; it needs preachers who practice it. An honest poor Muslim farmer preaches Islam a thousand times better than those fancy figures, an honest merchant preaches Islam a thousand times better than a sheikh on a mosque’s pulpit, a noble soldier preaches Islam, a good doctor preaches Islam, a diligent engineer preaches Islam, a sincere husband preaches Islam, a dedicated wife preaches Islam, etc…
By all means; preaching Islam is about interacting with other people honestly with noble manners and a sound heart; even if you don’t utter one word from the Qur’an or the Sunnah by your tongue. Conveying a verse from the Qur’an or a prophetic tradition through your practice is what counts. This is what the tradition atop the page means; or else it is going to be an invitation to hypocrisy which could never be what the prophet P.B.U.H. meant. If in this course you were asked by a Muslim brother/sister or a fellow non-Muslim about what Islam or the Qur’an says regarding a certain issue; only then you can open the Qur’an, recite the verses and explain them in a brief easy manner in a language that this person understands.
Allah says in the Qur’an: “Invite (people) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in the best of manners. Surely, your Lord knows best the one who deviates from His way, and He knows best the ones who are on the right path.” [The Qur’an (16:125)].
Allah mentioned “wisdom” before “fair preaching”, and wisdom says that this verse is not the first step that should be considered if you wish to preach Islam; it’s the step you should take after earning the respect of others through your ethics and attitude; or else; it’s going to be an extremely harmful thing to do. Islam needs practical preaching more than verbal preaching.
Allah says in the Qur’an:
“O mankind! Be pious to your Lord; Who created you from a single soul and from its kind He created its match, and from them He created many men and women; so fear Allah through Whom you demand (Your mutual rights), and do not sever the relations of the wombs. Verily Allah is ever an All-Watcher over you.” [The Qur’an (4:1)].
So we are all “One Family”, and being one family means that we should be “kind & Just” towards one another. Allah also says in the Qur’an: “O mankind, We have created you from males and females, and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Verily the noblest among you in Allah’s sight are those who are most pious. Verily Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.” [The Qur’an (49:13)].
Hence, Allah teaches us that we should get to know one another without any restrictions placed on race, nationality, religion or anything else. The noblest people in Allah’s sight are not Arabs, Asians, Europeans, nothing of that sort; the noblest are those who are most pious, those who have good manners and noble characters, those who are honest and sincere. Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H. said: “Truthful religion is sincerity.” He also said: “There is a morsel inside your body which if you repair; your whole body becomes virtuous; verily it’s your heart.” Preach Islam by repairing your heart.
It’s true that under the stresses of the world injustices we suffer from today; some semi-knowledgeable Muslims who don’t have enough understanding of Allah’s laws and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah reciprocate hatred towards other nations instead of knowledge; this is not from Islam. Actually this contradicts the innate human nature (Fitrah) as well as the Qur’anic teachings in a manifest way endangering its doer to be misguided in this life and deserve Allah’s wrath in the hereafter. Allah says in the Qur’an: “Allah does not forbid you with regards to those who did not fight you on account of faith and did not expel you from your homes (i.e. occupy your lands), that you do good to them, and deal justly with them. Verily Allah loves those who maintain justice.” [The Qur’an (60:8)].
Muslims have been inflicted for a very long time by two kinds of religious figures that try all the time to occupy their minds. Occupying lands doesn’t matter anymore; your mind is the target. The weapons of war have changed centuries ago; but unfortunately; simple people don’t realized this. The first kind of those alleged religious figures neither teaches people about their religion nor allows them to acquire true knowledge from the proper sources which they are very keen on sabotaging through their owned TV channels or by flooding the stores with their books. The second kind – which is more dangerous in my opinion – is more smart and smooth, it utilizes part of the previous method besides monopolizing the teaching positions in the religious institutions, they seek avidly to brainwash their students and convert them to a flock of sheep that acknowledge anything they say without any questioning. Although they claim that they are serving religion; both kinds aim at mobilizing people in crowds at their doors in order to use them for reasons which they never declare. Allah knows best; but sometimes I get the feeling that their aim is to drive people away from truly learning their religion and practicing it properly. Unfortunately most people follow those sheikhs like zombies. People who try to read, learn and criticize or object to anything stated by those sheikhs are immediately cast away like lepers.
There is a great difference between true scholars and false Sheikhs. The way to distinguish between them is easier than you think; those who try to occupy your mind with their opinions and create from you a duplicated copy of themselves are false Sheikhs, while those who try to liberate your mind and urge you to learn, think and criticize according to logical disciplines are the ones from whom you should seek council and knowledge.
When you read about the most knowledgeable scholars in the Islamic history; you will find that they were intelligent lofty-cultured bookworms. One famous example known worldwide is Imam Ibn-Rushd (520-595 A.H.) Latinized as Averroes; he used to read every night at least 40 pages. It is said that he never missed any night except when he got married and when his father died. Hence, by all means READ and LEARN, free your mind from those who love to stagger followers underneath their feet. Don’t degrade your intellectual capabilities and think that you are incapable of differentiating between wrong and right. Don’t trust any word you read simply because the one who wrote it is an acknowledged scholar. Scholars are human too; they build false opinions that could be revised and denied when found wrong. Imam Abu-Hanifah allowed his students to adopt different opinions from his own, he even ordered them to write down their opinions besides his. This did not degrade the Imam’s status; on the contrary it made him the “Grand Imam”. Imam Malek used to say: “Anyone is subjected to make mistakes and build wrong opinions that could be questioned except the prophet P.B.U.H.” Imam Shafe’i used to say: “My opinion is right having a possibility of turning out to be wrong, and the other opinions are wrong having a possibility of turning out to be right.” Because of their deep knowledge and open mindedness; no one of them ever accused the other of going astray or being a heretic, on the contrary; Imam Abu-Hanifah prayed behind the Malekites in Madinah, Imam Shafe’i prayed in the same style of the Hanafists when he led the prayers near Abu-Hanifah’s tomb, Imam Malek told Imam Al-Layth Ibn-Sa’d: “He is truly a knowledgeable jurist” referring to Abu-Hanifah, Imam Ahmad said: “Malek is the most beloved to me among all traditionists.”, etc… This was the kind of respect and spiritual unity those knowledgeable early Imams had because they were holding tight to the most treasured hoard in Islam; “Morals and Ethics”.
Acquiring deep knowledge about the Islamic sciences takes a life time and is not an obligation on every Muslim, but attaining the Islamic moralities is. Muslims cannot all be knowledgeable scholars, but they must all seek to be pious and noble-minded. The prophet P.B.U.H. was a model by his ethics and morals; he taught his companions through real practice. Muslims need to stop talking and start learning and practicing immediately or else; there won’t be any deliverance for them.
From: Islamic Methodologies Made Easy – ISBN: 9789779027395
By: Ehab Shawky Abd El-Khalek Ahmad
Sister Zohra Sarwari will be talking on “How the Qur’aan saved my Life and My Children’s Life!” In sha Allah
Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem, I will be giving a lecture at the end of this month in CT in’sha’Allaah. If your in the area please do come out! Title is “How the Qur’aan saved my Life and My Children’s Life!”
Mita was born as Ryoichi Mita on Dec. 19, 1892 in a Samurai (warrior) Buddhist family of Chofu town in Yamaguchi, Japan. He graduated from the Yamaguchi Commercial College in March 1916, at an advanced age of 24, because of his ill health. He visited China and learned the Chinese language. There he came in contact w…ith Chinese Muslims and liked their way of life. He was impressed because he saw no such community life in Japan. In 1920, when he was 28 years of age, he wrote an article “lslam in China” in a Japanese magazine called “Toa Keizai Kenkyu” (Far-East Economic Research Journal). This was the first impact of Islam upon him.