Dates: From the Perspective of Religion and Science
Ibn Wahshiyyah mentions two opinions: One is that the date-palm originated in Bahrain and the other is that it originated in Al-Ahsa’ and then spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula, as a mummy was discovered in Egypt that was wrapped in a mat made of palm leaves. An entire palm tree was also found in one of the Sakkara graves with a mummy from the First Dynasty (3200 BCE). Many of the Coptic monasteries contain writings that mention the benefits of dates.
Dates are mentioned in the Tawrat, Talmud and Qur’an; ‘Eesa (peace be upon him) used the branches of palm trees as a symbol of peace.
The fruit of the date-palm goes through five stages, taking approximately six months. The first stage is called Al-Hababook or Al-Saddi, when it looks like a small ball that is formed immediately after pollination and has a bitter taste. The second stage is Al-Balh, when it starts to grow and lengthen; it is green in color and has an acrid or pungent taste. The third stage is Al-Busr or Al-Khallal, when is appears yellowish and reddish, and tastes sweet and slightly acrid. The fourth stage is Al-Rutab when it becomes soft to the touch and is the color of honey, and is sweet and soft with a sugary taste. In the final stage the fruit becomes a date; its color darkens and it becomes wrinkly. ‘Ajwah is a type of date.
Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, confirmed the importance of this fruit when he addressed ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, and said: “O ‘A’ishah, a house in which there are no dates, its people will go hungry.” (Saheeh Muslim)
Many people wonder how the early Muslims were able to conquer a quarter of the known world within a third of a century and to maintain their armies, when in most cases they could give them little more than a sack of dates and a little water. Could a person live on dates and water for a number of months?
Dates have a special value and high status in Islam. I was thinking: why is there all this interest in dates? When I researched the matter in depth, I found that the date deserves all this respect and praise. It is one of the innumerable blessings from Allah, the Exalted, that He has bestowed upon us. Allah says:
“And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allah, never will you be able to count them. Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrongdoer, a disbeliever (an extreme ingrate who denies Allah’s Blessings by disbelief and by worshipping others besides Allah, and by disobeying Allah and His Prophet Muhammad).” (Soorah Ibrahim, 14:34).
“With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes, and every kind of fruit. Verily, in this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.” (Soorah Al-Nahl, 16:11).
Despite the fact that the date tree has been the subject of a number of scientific studies which have confirmed its importance, many people still know very little about it.
One is astonished and stunned by the Prophet’s understanding of the value of dates, when he said: “When one of you breaks the fast, let him do so with dates for they are a blessing, and if he cannot find dates then with water, for it is a purification.” (Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi; Saheeh)
The Prophetic miracle is proved by studies and research: at the end of the fast, the levels of glucose and insulin in the hepatic portal vein drop, which in turn reduces the absorption of glucose via the liver cells and other tissues such as muscle cells and nerve cells, and all stores of hepatic glycogen are exhausted or almost exhausted; at that point the tissues rely on getting energy from the oxidization of fatty acids and the oxidization of glucose that is manufactured in the liver from amino acids and glycerol. Hence, immediately supplying the body with glucose at this time is of great benefit, as its levels in the hepatic portal vein rise quickly, as soon as it is absorbed. It enters the cells of the liver first, then the cells of the brain, blood, nervous system, muscles and all other tissues, which Allah, the Exalted, has created in such a way that simple sugars will be the best nourishment for them and the easiest way for them to obtain energy. This stops the oxidization of fatty acids, thus preventing the formation of harmful ketones and dispelling the symptoms of overall weakness and slight disorder in the nervous system, if any such occurred as a result of oxidization of a large amount of fats. It also stops consumption of glucose which is manufactured in the liver and thus stops the destruction of amino acids and hence preserves the protein of the body.
Dates are regarded as the richest food in glucose; this is the reason they are the ideal food for the body, because they contain a high level of sugars which varies between 75 and 87 percent, of which glucose forms 55 percent and fructose forms 45 percent, in addition to a certain ratio of proteins, fats and vitamins, the most important of which are vitamins A, B2 and B12, as well as some minerals, the most important of which are calcium, phosphate, potassium, sulfur, sodium, magnesium, cobalt, zinc, fluorine, copper, manganese, and a little cellulose.
Fructose rapidly turns into glucose and is directly absorbed by the digestive system, thus quenching the body’s thirst for energy, especially in some tissues which rely on glucose such as brain cells, muscles, red blood cells and marrow.
Fructose, along with cellulose, has the effect of energizing peristalsis, as phosphorus is important for the nourishment of brain cells, and is one of the phosphate components which transmit energy and govern its use in all cells of the body.
All the vitamins contained in dates play an active role in nutritional metabolism: vitamins A, B1, B2, biotin, riboflavin and others; they also have a calming effect on the nerves. The minerals play a fundamental role in the formation of some important enzymes needed in bodily functions, as well as playing a very important role in the contraction and relaxing of muscles and normalizing the pH levels in the body, as a result of which muscle and nerve tension disappear and calmness and energy prevail. Research has also proved that magnesium can delay signs of aging.
On the contrary, if a person begins his Iftar (meal eaten to break the fast) with proteins and fat, they will not be absorbed until after a long period of digestion and maceration, which does not serve the purpose of meeting the body’s urgent need for energy. Moreover, high level of amino acids in the body that occur as the result of food that is free of sugars leads to a drop in blood sugar levels.
In addition to the vitamins and minerals, we find that dates contain fibre, which is regarded as an important factor in activating bowel movement and flexibility; in other words they act as a natural laxative which prevents constipation and its results such as indigestion and other problems. In fact dates are a remedy for constipation if they are eaten in the morning on an empty stomach.
Fresh dates also contain a little of the hormone pitocin. One of the functions of this hormone is to cause contraction of the blood vessels in the uterus; hence it helps to prevent uterine haemorrhage. We find a reflection of that in Soorah Maryam, where Allah, Most High, says:
“And shake the trunk of date palm towards you; it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you. So eat and drink and be glad.” (Soorah Maryam, 19:25, 26).
For these reasons, we can understand the wisdom behind the Prophet’s injunction to break the fast with dates.
In the Hadith it says that he used to break the fast with fresh dates before praying, and if there were no fresh dates, then (he would break the fast) with dried dates, and if there were no dried dates, then with a few sips of water. (Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, and Al-Tirmidhi; It is hasan)
Furthermore, it is good to eat dates so that they will be nourishment and healing for you, but it is better to eat them with the intention of following the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, so that they will be nourishment, healing and reward for you, insha’Allah (if Allah willing). Do not forget to praise and thank Allah, the Exalted, for that great blessing.
Dates: a source of nourishment and health and an economic goldmine
Source: Dr. Sa‘eed Shalaby, consultant gastroenterologist
Dates are regarded as a great source of nourishment that meets a number of human needs. In this article I hope to explain the nutritional, health and economic benefits of dates as my contribution to encouraging interest in dates and date palms. There is sufficient evidence of the importance of dates and date palms in the fact that they are mentioned in several places in the Holy Qur’an, such as:
“And tall date palms, with ranged clusters.” (Soorah Qaf, 50:10)
“And green crops (field) and date palms with soft spadix.” (Soorah Al-Shu‘ara’, 26:148)
“In them (both) will be fruits, and date palms and pomegranates.” (Soorah Al-Rahman, 55:68).
In a Hadith narrated by Al-Bukhari in his Saheeh from Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, it is narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Tell me of a tree that is like the Muslim; its leaves do not fall and … and it produces fruit at all times. It is the date palm.”
Dates in ancient times
Dates have been regarded as a popular economic food which from the earliest times has occupied a special place in Muslim hearts in general, and in the hearts of the people of the Arabian Peninsula in particular, because the date-palm is like a compassionate mother which embraced them with its branches, fed them with its good fruits, sheltered them with its branches and leaves, and warmed them with its fire.
How often have we heard of poets talking to their date palms, complaining to them. For example, the prince of poets, Ahmad Shawqi, said concerning the date palm:
• It is the food of the poor,
• The sweetmeat of the rich,
• The provision of travelers and strangers
Dates in modern times
In recent years, people have begun to turn to different kinds of chocolates, biscuits and candies, which the Arabs now offer to their guests as refreshment instead of dates which are superior in nutritional value despite their low price. Now their hearts have become hardened toward the date-palm, and the matter has gone so far that the trees are uprooted to make way for building apartment blocks. Some people keep their date-palms as something ornamental to be shown to guests, or as a symbol of traditional pride, a far cry from the days when it was regarded as something that was almost sacred.
Reasons for the importance of date-palms and dates
There are many reasons for the importance of date-palms, including the following:
• The date-palm can survive in a harsh environment, including scarcity of water, intense heat and high levels of salinity in the soil
• Its fruits can easily be preserved year round, with no need for special means of preservation
• It is easy to maintain
• Its fruits taste delicious
• It has a high calorie and nutritional value
• It is cheap
Nutritional value of dates
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “A house in which there are no dates, its people will go hungry.” (Narrated by Muslim)
The fruit of the date-palm is regarded as a complete nutritional substance, as it contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals, in addition to moisture, which is an important factor in giving the fruit its shape.
Sugars are regarded as the most important component of fresh dates, as they represent 70-75 percent of the dry material (sucrose, fructose, glucose). They also contain 16 amino acids, as well as a good amount of water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin and folic acid, in addition to small amounts of biotin and ascorbic acid.
Dates are regarded as an excellent source of minerals such as iron, potassium, copper, sulphur and manganese, as well as a moderate source of calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and magnesium.
Analytical composition of dates
The following table explains the nutritional value of 100 grams of dates:
Carbohydrate = 75 grams, Calcium = 65 mg, Water = 20 grams, Nicotinic acid = 2.2 mg, Fiber = 2.4 grams, Iron = 2.1 mg, Protein = 2.2 grams, Vitamin B1 = 0.08 mg, Fats = 0.6 grams, Vitamin B2 = 0.05 mg, Phosphorus = 72 mg, Vitamin A = 60 IU
Health benefits of dates
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “The best of your dates is Al-Burni; it takes away sickness and there is no sickness in it.” (Al-Ruwayani, Ibn ‘Adiyy, Al-Baihaqi, Al-Diya’, Al-‘Aqeeli, Al-Tabarani, Ibn Al-Sunni and Abu Na‘eem in Al-Tibb; it is a hasan Hadith].
Dates contain many benefits, the most important of which are:
• Relying on them leads to weight loss and a slim body because they are low in fat.
• Dates are regarded as a remedy for anaemia because they contain a high ratio of iron.
• They give immunity against cancer because they contain Magnesium.
• The juice of fresh dates is a diuretic, due to the actions of sugars that are present in it.
• Dates are regarded as strengthening the bones, teeth and libido because they contain Phosphorus and Calcium.
• Dates strengthen the eyesight and maintain the moisture of the eye because they contain Vitamin A, which fights night blindness.
• They strengthen the auditory nerves so they are good for the elderly.
• They have a calming effect on the nerves because they contain Vitamins A and B1 which strengthen the nerves. Dates reduce thyroid activity, as they contain Phosphorus which is regarded as nourishment for the nerve cells in the brain..
• Dates are regarded as a remedy for liver disease, jaundice, dry lips, dry skin and cracked nails because they contain Vitamin B.
• Dates are used to treat diseases of the bladder, stomach and intestines because they contain Vitamins B1 and B2 and niacin, which hydrate and protect the bowel against weakness and infection.
• Dates are regarded as a laxative and remedy for constipation because they contain cellulose which helps the bowel to move naturally, whereas laxative drugs are harsh and destroy the natural mucus membrane lining of the bowel due to artificial movements. When using drugs, the food remains in the large intestine for a long time, which can lead to colon infection.
• Dates regulate the acidity of the intestine, because they are rich in alkaline minerals such as calcium and potassium.
• They contain alkaline minerals which regulate blood acidity that results from consuming carbohydrates such as bread and rice, which causes a lot of hereditary diseases such as gallstones, kidney stones and high blood pressure. Dates are regarded as very beneficial for mother and baby during the postpartum period, as they stimulate contraction of the uterus after birth, which is important for the forming of breast milk and compensating the mother for what she lost of Iron, Calcium and Vitamin A during birth. This is important for the infant’s growth and the formation of blood and marrow. Allah says:
“And shake the trunk of date-palm toward you, it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you.” (Soorah Maryam, 19:25)
Some scientists like Dr. Jabbar Hasan Al-Nu‘aimi and Dr. Al-Ameer ‘Abbas, (in Al-Rutab Wan-Nakhlah by ‘Abdur Razzaq Al-Sa‘eed, Jeddah, 1985) think that the fact that the inhabitants of desert oases do not have a high incidence of cancer is due to their eating large amounts of dates which are rich in magnesium.
In a study by Dr. Raf‘at Husain from Al-Fujayrah, which was summarized by Sayyid ‘Uthman in Majallat Al-Ittihad Al-Imaratiyyah, 20/12/1991, the amount of fluorine in dates was estimated at four times the amount contained in other fruits. Fluorine plays a role in maintaining the health of teeth and preventing tooth decay. This explains why desert dwellers have good, strong teeth, because they eat large amounts of dates every day, which contain the necessary calcium and phosphorus, as stated above.
Scientists (from an article by Ajwad Al-Haraki about dates in Majallat Hadarah Al-Islam, issue No. 7, Volume 18, September 1977) believe that the presence of alkaline minerals in dates regulates blood acidity that results from eating too many starches. It is well known that blood acidity is the cause of a number of hereditary diseases such as kidney stones, gallstones, gout, high blood pressure, haemorrhoids and so on.
In an experiment on the use of date pits as animal feed, it became clear that they contain a female hormone that had an effect on the animals’ weight, and they were useful in ridding the animals of colic and diarrhea.
Scientific studies indicate (from an article by Ajwad Al-Haraki on dates in Majallat Hadarat Al-Islam, issue No. 7, Vol. 8, 1977) that dates contain properties that can reduce the effects of an over-active thyroid and hyperactivity in children. Hence doctors advise giving dates in the morning to such children, so as to calm them down.
Do germs live in dates?
It was narrated that Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “The best of your dates is Al-Burni; it takes away sickness and there is no sickness in it.” (Narrated by Al-Tabarani, Al-Hakim, Ibn Al-Sunni and by Abu Na‘eem in Al-Tibb. It is a hasan Hadith)
Dr. ‘Abdullah ‘Abdur Razzaq Al-Sa‘eed says in his book Al-Rutab Wan-Nakhlah: It is true that there is no sickness in dates and germs cannot live in them. Fresh dates of the kinds that are exported to foreign markets were contaminated with cholera germs in a ratio one hundred times greater than what is seen in the stools of patients affected by summer cholera, and three different species of cholera-causing germs were used for that experiment. It was seen in this experiment that the germs could not live for more than three days, which means that when dates are exposed to severe contamination, they become free of the disease-causing factor within three days under natural circumstances. This research was done by the Iraqi Central Institute of Bacteriology in cooperation with an expert internist of the World Health Organization, Oscar Felzenfield, a cholera specialist.
Drs. Al-Nu‘aimi and Ja‘fi said (from the book Al-Rutab Wan-Nakhlah by Dr. ‘Abdullah ‘Abdur Razzaq Al-Sa‘eed, Jeddah, 1985), “The Turel studies point to the presence of a layer of tannin in the fruit which protects it against the parasites which produce rotten spots on the surface of the fruit during the Rutab stage.”
Dates and poison
Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated in their Saheehain, “It was narrated that Sa‘d, may Allah be pleased with him, said, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “The one who eats seven ‘Ajwah dates every morning will not be harmed that day by poison or witchcraft.”
Dr. Mahmoud Nazim An-Naseemi says, “Poison is of various types, and may be external in origin and enters the body via wounds, snake bites or covering large burns with a substance that is regarded as poisonous in large amounts, such as mercurochrome, or it enters via the mouth with food and drink, or via breathing.”
But if the poison is internal in origin, it may be due to things such as urea poisoning (uraemia) or retention of azotes due to kidney failure (azotaemia), or putrefaction in the stomach, or toxins from germs and parasites.
The body gets rid of all harmful substances, toxins from germs and the results of food putrefying in the intestines via the connection with the liver by means of some compounds, the most important of which is glucoronic acid, which is manufactured by the liver as the result of the oxidation of dextrose.
We can say that the function of the liver in breaking down toxic compounds is one of its most important functions. Hence dextrose is included in the diet and treatment of various kinds of poisoning, and fresh and dried dates are among the richest fruits in this sugar.
For health and other reasons that medicine may discover in the future, about which Allah knows best, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, recommended eating seven ‘Ajwah dates in the morning, before breakfast, because their sugar is absorbed quickly and stored in the liver, which helps to destroy and neutralize toxins. In addition to that, it is a spiritual remedy that raises the morale when the Muslim starts his day with seven dates, following the example of and believing in the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
Dates as a protection against witchcraft
It should be noted that when a person eats seven dates in the morning out of faith and believing his Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his certain faith in Allah will increase and he will turn to Him and put his trust in Him. Thus his morale will become higher and his physical and spiritual resistance will be stronger, leaving no room for Waswas (whispers from the Shaitan) or fears or expectations of witchcraft or poisoning by an enemy who is plotting against him. If that does happen, its harmful effects will be reduced by means of his believing in Allah, the Exalted, putting his trust in Him and believing His Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
So, it is psychological protection and a spiritual remedy against witchcraft, that Ibn Al-Qayyim, may Allah have Mercy upon him, said, “One of the conditions of the sick person benefiting from medicine is his acceptance of it and his belief that it will benefit him; then the body will accept it and that will help him to fight off the disease. Many remedies are efficacious due to the patient’s believing in them and accepting them. And Allah knows best.”
Different ways of introducing dates into various products:
• Packaging and drying
• Manufacture of dates molasses (dibs)
• Manufacture of liquid date sugar
• Manufacture of sweets and pastries
• Manufacture of yoghurts
• Manufacture of date vinegar
• Manufacture of medicinal and industrial alcohol
• Manufacture of citric acid and other organic acids
• Manufacture of proteins and amino acids
• Manufacture of pickles
• Extraction of oils from date pits
• Manufacture of food for infants and children
• Manufacture of animal feed
• Production of wood, paper and rope
• Processing date by-products such as fibers, leaves and pits, e.g. using them for fuel and in handicrafts.
Fresh dates (Al-Rutab)
Allah, the Exalted, says:
“And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a date-palm. She said: ‘Would that I had died before this, and had been forgotten and out of sight! Then (the babe ‘Eesa or Jibraeel) cried unto her from below her, saying: Grieve not: your Lord has provided a water stream under you. And shake the trunk of date palm toward you, it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you. So eat and drink and be glad’.” (Soorah Maryam, 19:23-26)
There is medical wisdom behind the choice of the fruit of the date palm over any other fruit during labor and childbirth.
The fruit of the date-palm (Rutab or fresh dates) contains a substance that causes the uterus to contract and strengthens the uterine muscles, thus helping in birth. It also reduces the amount of bleeding that occurs after birth.
Fresh dates contain high levels of simple sugars that are easy to digest. They are a basic source of energy and a preferred form of nourishment for the muscles. The muscles of the uterus are among the largest muscles which work very hard during birth. Obstetricians give to women in labor water and sugar in the form of a sugar solution. The verse also speaks of giving liquids with sugar, as Allah, the Exalted, says: “So eat and drink”. This is another miracle.
Fresh dates lower blood pressure in the pregnant woman for a short while, after which it goes back to normal. That also serves to reduce the amount of bleeding.
Fresh dates are a soft substance, and it is known medically that plant-based laxatives are beneficial in facilitating the cleansing of the large intestine.
The miracle of Tahneek in Islam
Islam has paid a great deal of attention to the care of the infant and mother throughout all stages of development. What the United Nations, human rights organizations and World Health Organization have to say cannot compare with it.
In Islam, care of the infant does not begin at the moment of birth, rather it begins from the time a person first thinks of marriage. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, enjoined us to choose good husbands and wives.
Islam pays a great deal of attention to the soundness of the offspring and the formation of a strong family, not only from a moral point of view, but also taking into account physical, hereditary and psychological aspects.
This care continues during pregnancy, birth, breastfeeding and the stages of child rearing that follow. One of the manifestations of this care is the Tahneek (chewing a date or something sweet, then putting it into the newborn’s mouth and rubbing it into the roof of the mouth with one’s finger until it dissolves.) of the newborn.
Some narrations about Tahneek:
Al-Bukhari narrated in his Saheeh from Asma’ Bint Abi Bakr, may Allah be pleased with her, that she got pregnant with ‘Abdullah Ibn Zubair in Makkah. She said, “I set out when I was full term, and came to Madinah and stayed in Quba, and gave birth in Quba’, Then I brought him to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and put him in his lap. Then he called for a date and chewed it, then he spat into his mouth, and the first thing to enter his stomach was the saliva of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Then he rubbed the inside of his mouth with the date (i.e., Tahneek), then he prayed for him and blessed him.”
In the Saheehain it is narrated that Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “A boy was born to me and I brought him to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and he called him Ibrahim and rubbed the inside of his mouth with a date, and prayed for him to be blessed, then he gave him back to me.”
The level of sugar (glucose) in the blood of the newborn is low; the lower the newborn’s weight, the lower the level of blood glucose will be. Hence glucose levels in premature babies (those whose weight is less than 2 kg) is usually very low, and in many instances it is less than 20 mg per 100 ml of blood.
In newborns who weigh more than 2 kg, the level of sugar in their blood is usually above 30 mg. This level of blood sugar (20 or 30 mg) is regarded as very low, and in many cases may lead to the following symptoms:
• The newborn refuses to nurse
• Limpness of the muscles
• Repeated interruptions in breathing, resulting in cyanosis
• Seizures, fits or convulsions
• That may lead to chronic, serious complications, namely:
• Delayed growth
• Mental retardation
• Cerebral palsy
• Impairment to the hearing or vision or both
If this case is not treated immediately, it may end in death, even though the remedy is very easy and available, which is to administer glucose dissolved in water, either by mouth or intravenously.
When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, rubbed dates inside the mouths of newborn infants after taking the dates into his mouth, and rubbing the softened date that was mixed with his blessed saliva, there was great wisdom behind that. Dates contain abundant amounts of glucose, especially after they have been diluted with saliva, which contains enzymes that turn disaccharides (sucrose) into monosaccharides. Saliva also helps to dilute these types of sugar, thus enabling the infant to benefit from it.
As most or all newborns need glucose immediately after birth, giving the newborn softened dates protects the child from the danger of complications caused by lack of sugar that we have referred to above.
Recommending Tahneek or rubbing the inside of the infant’s mouth with softened dates is a very important protective remedy. It is a medical miracle that mankind did not know of, and they did not know of the dangers of low glucose levels in the blood of the newborn.
The newborn, especially if premature, undoubtedly needs to be given a sugar solution immediately after birth. What obstetric hospitals and children’s hospitals usually do is give a glucose solution to the newborn immediately after birth, then after that the mother begins to breastfeed.
These Ahadeeth which speak of Tahneek open up an important new horizon in the protection of children, especially premature infants, against serious diseases that are caused by low glucose levels in their blood. Giving the newborn an easily-digested sugary substance is the safest and best solution in such cases.
This also explains a medical miracle that was not known at the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, or in subsequent eras, until the wisdom behind that procedure became clear in the twentieth century.
(from Islamic Medicine: The Key to a Better Life by Yusuf Al-Hajj Ahmad, Published by Darussalam)
Dates: From the Perspective of Religion and Science
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