Monthly Archives: June 2011
In The Name Of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu
The Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects
Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah)
Dawud :: Book 40 : Hadith 4579 Narrated AbuHurayrah:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The Jews were split up into seventy-one or seventy-two sects; and the Christians were split up into seventy one or seventy-two sects; and my community will be split up into seventy-three sects.
Reported by Awf ibn Malik Al Ashja’l:
The Prophet said, “How will you be O Awf when this nation is divided into 73 sects. One sect will be in Paradise and the rest in Hell.”
I asked: “When will this be O Messenger of Allah?”
He answered, saying: “When the police increase and slave girls take authority, and when the lambs (weak authorities) sit on the pulpit, and when the Qu’ran is used as flutes and mosques decorated and the spoils of war manipulated, and the obligatory charity becomes an excessive debt, and trust is taken like spoils of war, and religious study is not for the Sake of Allah and when husbands obey their wives, and disobeys his mother, and banishes his father, and the last of this nation curses the beginning of it, and when the tribe is mastered by a deviator, and the leader of the nation is the worst of them and a man is treated generously to avoid his evil. Upon that day it will happen and men will run to Syria to the City of Damascus, which is one of the best cities in Syria that protects them from their enemy … ” I asked: “Will Syria be opened?”
He answered: “Yes, soon then after its opening the trials will start and a dark and dusty trial will come. Trials will follow one another until a man from the Family of my House called the Mahdi comes. If you reach him, follow him and be among those who are guided.”(At-Tabarani)
All will go to hell except the one to which my companions belong
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 171 Narrated by: Abdullah ibn Amr Radiallahu Anhu,
Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: There will befall my Ummah exactly (all those) evils which befell the people of Isra’il, so much so that if there was one amongst them who openly committed fornication with his mother there will be among my Ummah one who will do that, and if the people of Isra’il were fragmented into seventy-two sects my Ummah will be fragmented into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in Hell Fire except one sect. They (the Companions) said: Allah’s Messenger, which is that? Whereupon he said: It is one to which I and my companions belong.
Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
Deviants will be guided by desire
‘The People of the Two Scriptures divided into seventy-two sects. This Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects, all in the Fire except one, that is, the Jama’ah. Some of my Ummah will be guided by desire, like one who is infected by rabies; no vein or joint will be saved from these desires.””
This hadith was also narrated by Abu Dawood (2/503), Ahmad (4/102) and al-Haakim (1/128) among others, with similar wording but with the following addition;
Large Community [Jama’ah] Will Go To Jannah
ثنتان وسبعون في النار. قيل: يا رسول الله
من هم؟ قال: الجماعة
“Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the ‘Jama’ah.'”,
The sect which goes to jannah(Paradise) are those who obey The Prophet (PBUH)’s Sunnah and Holly Quran. Its not Specified by name it has been Specified by Action. Sect In Islam doesn’t Shows Their Dis Unity, but It shows the Wide Fiqha of this Religions, that is not in other religions, like in Christianity Their Fiqha is just about five or six Passages, that about marriage and so on. In fact Sects in Islam are like FLOWERS IN THE GARDEN. That makes the garden more beautiful and nice. But it Excludes The Bidat (Bida’) In Islam.
The hadith mentions the word “Firqah”; this word is a lafz mushtaraq, or homonym.
It is a word, which has many meanings. Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) mentions this word in different contexts in the Quran;
وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُواْ كَآفَّةً فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ
مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ
وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ
9:122 Nor should the believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).
Here, the word firqah is used to mean group or expedition.
Pronounced Takfir/Labelling unbeliever
2:113 The Jews say: “The Christians have naught (to stand) upon”; and the Christians say: “The Jews have naught (to stand) upon.” Yet they (profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment.
*Note:Jews Pronunced Takfir on Christians because they believed in Isa alai salaa /Jesus and Christians pronounced Takfir because Jews did not believed in Isa alai salaam/Jesus.
Now Lets Analyse How Jews And Christians Divided
2:253 Those apostles We endowed with gifts some above others: to one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honor); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. If Allah had so willed succeeding generations would not have fought among each other after clear (Signs) had come to them but they (chose) to wrangle some believing and others rejecting. If Allah had so willed they would not have fought each other; but Allah fulfilleth His plan.
3:19 The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His will): nor did the people of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah Allah is swift in calling to account.
Deviance Of Jews
3:78. And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (as they read), so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say: “This is from Allâh,” but it is not from Allâh; and they speak a lie against Allâh while they know it.
*Note: Here again the word firqah is used, but in this context, it is something that is condemned, for the action they carried out was distorting the revelation. So the context will indicate what the meaning is of the word being used.
4:160. For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful to them certain good foods which has been lawful to them, and for their hindering many from Allâh’s Way;
9:30 The Jews call Uzair a son of Allah and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth!*Note: They called Uzair son of Allah
2:87 We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of Apostles; We gave Jesus the son of Mary clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you an Apostle with what ye yourselves desire not ye are puffed up with pride? Some ye called impostors and others ye slay!*Note:Jews rejected Isa alai salaam /JESUS
5:13 But because of their breach of their Covenant We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard: they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the Message that was sent them nor wilt thou cease to find them barring a few ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them and overlook (their misdeeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.
*Note; They forgot good part of the book
Deviance Of Christians
:14 From those too who call themselves Christians We did take a Covenant but they forgot a good part of the Message that was sent them: so We estranged them with enmity and hatred between the one and the other to the Day of Judgment. And soon will Allah show them what it is they have done. *Note: They forgot good part of the message
4:171 O people of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of Allah and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Apostles. Say not “Trinity”: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One Allah: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.
*Note:They believed in Trinity
5:72 They do blaspheme who say: “Allah is Christ the son of Mary.” But said Christ: “O children of Israel! worship Allah my Lord and your Lord.” Whoever joins other gods with Allah Allah will forbid him the garden and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.
73 They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy) verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.*Note:They believed Allah is christ the son of Mary
9:31 They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; Yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah: there is no god but He. Praise and glory to him: (far is He) from having the parents they associate (with him).
*Note:They invented priesthood
57:27 Then in their wake We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the monasticism which they invented for themselves We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good pleasure of Allah; but that they did not foster as they should have done. Yet We bestowed on those among them who believed their (due) reward but many of them are rebellious transgressors.
*Note:They invented monasticism
Solution for Apostasy
Division Due To Apostasy Was Death Even In Musa alai salaa’s time,its the same in Present times.For ex Qadianis, Submitters, Nation of Islam will be killed in Islamic state.
20:85 (Allah) said: “We have tested thy people in thy absence: the Samiri has led them astray.”
86 So Moses returned to his people in state of indignation and sorrow. He said: “O my people! did not your Lord make a handsome promise to you? Did then the promise seem to you long (in coming)? Or did ye desire that Wrath should descend from your Lord on you and so ye broke your promise to me?”
87 They said: “We broke not the promise to thee as far as lay in our power: but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the (whole) people and we threw them (into the fire) and that was what the Samiri suggested.
88 “Then he brought out (of the fire) before the (people) the image of a calf: it seemed to low: so they said: ‘This is your god and the god of Moses but (Moses) has forgotten!’ ”
89 Could they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer) and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?
90 Aaron had already before this said to them: “O my people! ye are being tested in this: for verily your Lord is (Allah) Most Gracious: so follow me and obey my command.”
91 They had said: “We will not abandon this cult but we will devote ourselves to it until Moses returns to us.
92 (Moses) said: ” O Aaron! what kept thee back when thou sawest them going wrong
93 “From following me? Didst thou then disobey my order?”
94 (Aaron) replied: “O son of my mother! seize (me not) by my beard nor by (the hair of) my head! Truly I feared lest thou shouldst say
‘Thou hast caused a division among the Children of Israel and thou didst not respect my word!'”
2:54 And remember Moses said to his people: “O my people! Ye have indeed wronged yourselves by your worship of the calf so turn (in repentance) to your Maker and slay yourselves (the wrong-doers); that will be better for you in the sight of your Maker.” Then He turned toward you (in forgiveness); for He is Oft-returning Most Merciful.
With respect to the hadith, Allah’s Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) explains to us how the Jews were divided into seventy-one sects or firqah, and the Christians were similarly divided into seventy-two firqah. Then he (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) states that this Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects and that all but the one who follows what he (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) and his companions followed will be in hell.This does not mean being in hell just like a kafir will be in hell as long as that muslims has not fallen out of the fold of Islam.
Upon studying the areas in which they disagreed are Two
1. They disagreed in the fundamentals of their Deen. They disagreed on their Prophets, the Day of Judgement, the Unity of Allah, resurrection, heaven and hell, etc. These are disagreements on the foundations of belief. Since Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) and His Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) ordered us not to divide as the People of the Book did, then we are to avoid that area which their disagreement occurred in. This means that disagreement on the fundamentals of the Deen is condemned.
2.They also disagreed in their respective books ,forgot good part of the book,verbally distored the book ,they invented priesthood & monasticism,
Allah says to Muslims..
وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللّهِ جَمِيعاً وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُواْ
3:103 And hold fast all together by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah’s favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that by His grace ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided.
Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) orders the Muslims to hold tight and not let go of the rope of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) and not to divide.
‘The rope of Allah’
Ibn Masood (ra), Ali bin Abi Talib (ra), and Abu Saeed Al-Kuddrri (ra) said it is the Qur’an. Others said it is the Deen of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala). Others like Ibnul Mubaarak said it is the Jama’ah.
‘And divide not’
At-Tabari said; “…and do not disperse away from the Deen of Allah and His covenant which he took from you in His Book: that you should be together in obeying Him and His Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam).”
Ibn Katheer said; “He ordered them to stay in the Jama’ah and not to divide.”
Al-Qurtubi said; “Do not divide as the Jews and the Christians in their Deen…and it could mean do not separate based on your desires and interests.”
Therefore, the disagreement that Muslims are not allowed to have is in the fundamentals of their Deen, not in its branches.
This is due to several reasons:
The texts that condemn the disagreement order the Muslims not to disagree like the People of the Book who disagreed in the fundamentals ,they also disagreed in other aspects regarding their books. So Muslims must avoid this.
The Sunnah of the Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) permitted disagreements in the branches or Furoo’.
1) The disagreement that existed among the Sahabah were in the Furoo’, not in the Usul (foundations of the Deen). No condemnation was made about such disagreements in the Furoo’.
2) The followers of the Companions (Tabi’een), the generation that followed them, and the scholars of the Salaf (predecessors) accepted the disagreement in the Furoo’ but not in the Usul ud-Deen (foundations of the Deen).
So, for example, Ash-Shafi’i (ra) states in his book Ar-Risalah; “Disagreement is of two types: One that is Haram and the other is not. Everything that Allah established by the definite proof (Hujjah) in His book or clearly stated by His Prophet is Haram to disagree over by the one who knows of it. As for that which can be understood differently or by analogy, since the text can bare it…there is room for [disagreement] unlike in the clearly stated.”
Ibn Taymiyah (ra) in his book al-Fatawa al-Kubra, Vol. 20, p.256 stated; “Then it [the texts] are divided to: that which is definite in its dalalah (meaning). Its definiteness is established in its chain [of narrators] (Sanad) as well as in its contents (Mata), where we are sure that Allah’s Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) said it and meant that meaning. The other which is indefinite in its dalalah (meaning). As for the first, it must be believed in and acted according to. This is indisputable among the scholars in general. The scholars might disagree however in some news whether their chains are definite (Qat’i) or not and whether their meaning is definite or not. An example of such disagreement is with regard to the news transmitted by the one (Khabarul Wahid) that is accepted by the Ummah or the one that the Ummah has agreed to act upon.”
The Sahabah (ra) had disagreed in matters, which were related to the branches of the Deen, but they remained united on the foundations of the Deen. Subsequently, the great Mujtahideen of Islam differed on many aspects of the Deen, but they were again in the branches. So the “firqah” which are punished in hell fire, are not those groups which have these legitimate differences. Therefore, those who follow a particular Madhab, such as the Shafi’i, Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki
The Hanafi scholar, Ibn Abideen stated this fact; “There is no doubt in the disbelief (kufr) of those that falsely accuse Sayyida Aisha (ra) of adultery, believe that Sayyidina Ali (ra) was God or that the angel Jibril mistakenly descended with the revelation (wahy) on the Messenger of Allah (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), etc. which is apparent kufr and contrary to the teachings of the Qur’an.” [Radd al-Muhtar, 4/453].
Ibn Abidin continues; “It is difficult to make a general statement and judge all the Shia to be non-believers, as the scholars have agreed on the deviation and defection of the deviated sects.”
Those who follow the schools of thought from the Shia like the Ja’fari or Zaidi, are not labelled with disbelief because their aqeeda is not kufr,not all have kufr Aqeeda which could makes them apostates.
After close scrutiny of their beliefs its clear ,they all are not kafir but deviants that is why they are allowed to perform Hajj.The Quranites/khawarijites/hadith rejectors are also not disbelievers & and other sects ,these are all considered deviants but not Non-muslims.Some have apostaised
i.e left the fold of Islam such as the Qadiani, who claimed Prophethood after Muhammad (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), or those Alawi, who claim Ali (ra) to be god incarnate (may Allah protect us from such deviation), or those who deny the punishment in the Ahkirah,destiny,also Submitters,Nation of Islam etc. Any group that contradicts the definite text of the Qur’an, falls outside the fold of Islam.
Even the Shia scholar of the Qur’an, Allama Muhammad Hussein Tabatabai, writes in his very famous exegesis, Tafseer-ul-Meezan, 12th edition, page 109, published in Iran, regarding the completeness of the Qur’an;
“The Qur’an, which Almighty Allah descended on Prophet Muhammad (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), is protected from any change.”
The Qur’an found in the mosques, throughout the world, whether in Karachi, Tehran, Cairo, Madinah, or Algiers is one.
How to treat Innovators?:
There must be room for dialogue with them.
There must be room for inviting them to right aqeedah,teaching right beliefs & guiding them to sunnah.
But he should hate them for the sake of Allaah.One should hate the innovators for their innovations.One should hate the sins of the sinners. But his hatred for the kuffaar should be greater, while calling them to Allaah and striving to guide them, acting in accordance with all the shar’i evidence. So he should hate the innovator in accordance with the degree of his innovation, so long as it does not imply kufr, and he should hate the sinner in accordance with the degree of his sin, but he should also love him for the sake of Allaah in accordance with the degree of his Islam and faith. From this we know that shunning depends on the situation.
Example from Hazrat Ali Karamuallahu Wajhahu
Khawrijites were allowed to live in Ali r.a Khilafah but they were forbidden to propagate their deviant Aqeedah. As long as they obeyed the laws they were allowed to live in Khilafah.This proofs deviants and misguided ones were allowed to live nor was Takfeer declared on them legitimatizing their killing.
‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib karamullahu wajhahu said; concerning the Khawaarij:
“They have three rights over us: that we should not initiate fighting with them so long as they do not fight us; that we should not prevent them from entering the mosques of Allaah to mention His name therein;
and that we should not deny the booty to them so long as they have fought alongside us.”
Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (7/562) with a hasan isnaad.
Being cautious with innovators.
‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib karamullahu wajhahu, said concerning the Khawaarij: “They have three rights over us: that we should not initiate fighting with them so long as they do not fight us; that we should not prevent them from entering the mosques of Allaah to mention His name therein; and that we should not deny the booty to them so long as they have fought alongside us.” Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (7/562) with a hasan isnaad.
It is reported that Al-Fudayl b. ‘Ayyâd – Allâh have mercy on him – said:
Verily, Allâh has angels who seek out the circles of remembrance [of Allâh], so be careful who you sit with; make sure it is not with an adherent of bid’ah, for Allâh does not look at them. And the sign of nifâq (hypocrisy in faith) is that a man mingles with an adherent of bid’ah.
Ibn Battah, Al-Ibânah Al-Kubrâ 1:460
Muslims are single brotherhood.
Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) states;
إِنَّ هَذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ
“Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other)”
[TMQ Al-Anbiyah: 92]
Messenger of Allah (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) taught us,
المسلم أخ المسلم ، لا يظلمه ولا يخذله ولا يحقره
“The Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, he doesn’t oppress him, neither does he hand him over to the enemy, he doesn’t disappoint him, nor does he humiliate him.”
Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) states;
هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمينَ
22:78 And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive (with sincerity and under discipline): He has chosen you and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (Revelation); that the Apostle may be a witness for you and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer give regular Charity and hold fast to Allah! He is your Protector the Best to protect and the Best to help!
Any disagreement which exists, is something which can be referred to the divine texts,
فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ
4;59 O ye who believe! obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves refer it to Allah and His Apostle if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best and most suitable for final determination.
وَالَّذينَ كَفَرُواْ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ إِلاَّ تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتْنَةٌ فِي الأَرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِي
8:73 The unbelievers are protectors one of another: unless ye do this (protect each other) there would be tumult and oppression on earth and great mischief.
1. Niyah (intention) for Allaah:
This is making a sincere intention of memorizing the Qur’an to only gain the pleasure of Allaah ‘Azza wa Jall. If this is not your intention, then your whole plan of memorizing fails and there will be no barakah in your memorizing.
2. Start practicing Islam to the best of your ability:
It is important to keep an Islamic habit and trying to abstain from sinning. Be in the company of good people who will encourage you to do good practices rather than those who take you away from the path of Allaah ‘Azza wa Jal.
Imaam Shafi’ee once complained to his teacher about poor memory, and this was obviously a great concern for the great Imaam of one of the four school of thoughts. The teacher of Imaam Shafi’ee advised him to abstain from sin. So this is indeed a great advice for us to follow as well, since abstaining from sin will eventually make us focus more on the ‘ibaadah (worship) rather than the dunyaa (worldy matters).
3. Learning tajweed from someone who has Ijaaza:
This is to learn from a teacher who knows how to pronounce the words and vowels correctly in order to recite the Qur’an in its correct manners.
4. Make a habit to memorize every day:
Do bit by bit every day, even if it is little as memorize 5 small ayahs from the Qur’an. Do your best to make this a consistent effort, so that you will not fall back on your goals. If you memorize even a small amount day by day, you will be one step closer to the end of bridge insha’allah.
5. Memorize at the early stage of the day:
I know this is difficult for a lot of us, especially for me. I must admit, I love snuggling with my nice comfy pillow, however for those who are really determined in memorizing the Book of Allaah, it is best to memorize right after Fajr/ early in the morning when the mind is fresh and when the beautiful Sun is bright.
6. Recite to somebody on consistent basis:
Have a friend, family member or a teacher who you can recite to consistently.
This is an amazing tip when it comes to reviewing, because you will have someone catch the small mistakes you wont notice while you are reciting the surah from memory.
It is best to have a buddy that you can compete with. At times you may feel unmotivated. This is true for a lot of students and due to this reason you may see people actually quitting on their goal. Thats why a little competition wont hurt. Try finding a friend who you know wants to memorize the Qur’an and knows nearly the same amount as you. Both of you can race towards attaining good deeds and keep each other motivated by sharing how much each of you have memorized at the end of the day and how much you reviewed.
And Allah says: “So hasten towards all that is good.” ( 2:148 )
8. Divide relationship of Qur’an into four categories:
New memorization: No matter what, memorize after Fajr, bright and early since this is the best time to do it.
Linking last 7 days memorization: What this means is, that everything you learned in the last seven days, revise it completely. This is essential since it is easy to forget your past lessons if you don’t consistently review, and this is believed to be a good methodology for memorizing the Qur’an and keeping up to date with your revision.
GO OVER OLD STUFF: I capitalize this, because this is an important advice to myself. Sometimes you will get lazy to review stuff that you learned so long ago. It is easy to forget your old stuff, and this is really the hardest part when it comes to memorizing the Qur’an. Ask yourself, what is the point of memorizing, when you will forget what you learned in the past. Therefore, try to revise your old juz, or ayaat you memorized from before on a consistent basis during any time of the day, and if you can, do your best to keep it to a minimum of 1/4 – 1/2 Juz insha’allah.
Read what you will memorizing the next day before you go to sleep: I am currently a hifdh student, and this something I added. Personally, I find it easier to memorize when you read what you are going to be memorizing the next day, the night before. I just think it helps because you will have some words and phrases stuck in your mind which helps you to learn the lesson faster.
9. Brain Food and Health:
“A daily run, a diet rich in almonds and other healthful foods and a stimulating environment — all may keep aging brain cells in shape, according to research out Monday.” (Kathleen Fackelmann, USA TODAY) To increase your memorization capacity, I guess its advisable to eat some almonds and be a little more active (Shoot, I actually have to get off the couch to memorize!!).
What is the ruling on Celebrating the night of the Isra’ and Mi’raaj, which is the twenty-seventh night of Rajab?
What is the ruling on Celebrating the night of the Isra’ and Mi’raaj, which is the twenty-seventh night of Rajab?
Praise be to Allaah.
There is no doubt that the Isra’ and Mi’raaj (the Prophet’s Night Journey and Ascent into heaven) are two great signs of Allaah which point to the truthfulness of the His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and the greatness of his status before Allaah.
They are also signs of the great power of Allaah, and of His exalted position above His creation. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allaah) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him]
Who took His slave (Muhammad) for a journey by night from Al‑Masjid Al‑Haraam (at Makkah) to Al‑Masjid Al‑Aqsa (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad) of Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All‑Hearer, the All‑Seer”
There are mutawaatir reports from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that he was taken up into the heavens, and their gates were opened for him, until he passed beyond the seventh heaven, where his Lord spoke to him as He willed, and enjoined the five daily prayers upon him. At first Allaah, may He be exalted, enjoined fifty prayers, but our Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) kept going back and asking Him to reduce it, until He made them five, so they are five obligatory prayers but fifty in reward, because each good deed is rewarded tenfold. To Allaah be praise and thanks for all His blessings.
With regard to this night on which the Isra’ and Mi’raaj took place, there is nothing in the saheeh ahaadeeth to indicate that it is in Rajab or in any other month. Everything that has been narrated concerning a specific date for these events cannot be proven to have come from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) according to the scholars of hadeeth. Allaah has wise reasons for causing the people to forget it. Even if the date were proven, it would not be permissible for the Muslims to single it out for particular acts of worship, and it is not permissible for them to celebrate it, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) did not celebrate it and they did not single it out in any way. If celebrating it was something that is prescribed in Islam, the Messenger would have told his ummah about that, either in word or in deed. If any such thing had happened, it would have been well known, and his companions would have transmitted the information to us. They narrated from their Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) everything that his ummah needs to know, and they did not neglect any aspect of the religion, rather they were the first ones to do anything good. If celebrating this night had been prescribed in Islam, they would have been the first people to do so. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was the most sincere of people, and he conveyed the message to the people in full, and he fulfilled the trust. If venerating and celebrating this night were part of the religion of Allaah, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have done that and would not have concealed it. Since no such thing happened, it is known that celebrating it and venerating it is not part of Islam at all. Allaah has perfected this ummah’s religion for it and has completed His favour upon them, and He condemns those who introduce things into the religion which Allaah has not ordained. Allaah says in His holy Book, in Soorat al-Maa’idah (interpretation of the meaning):
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”
And Allaah says in Soorat al-Shoora (interpretation of the meaning):
“Or have they partners with Allaah (false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allaah has not ordained?”
In the saheeh ahaadeeth it is proven that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) warned against bid’ah (innovation) and stated clearly that it is misguidance, so as to show the ummah how serious the matter is and put them off it.
For example, it is narrated in al-Saheehayn from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” In a report narrated by Muslim it says: “Whoever does any action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”
In Saheeh Muslim it is narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say in his khutbah on Friday: “The best of speech is the Book of Allaah and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The worst of matters are those which are newly-invented, and every innovation is a going astray.” Al-Nasaa’i added with a jayyid isnaad: “and every going astray will be in the Fire.”
In al-Sunan it is narrated that al-‘Irbaad ibn Saariyah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) delivered an eloquent speech to us which melted our hearts and caused our eyes to flow with tears. We said: O Messenger of Allaah, it is as if it is a farewell address, so advise us. He said: “I advise you to fear Allaah, and to listen and obey, even if a slave is appointed over you. Whoever among you lives will see many differences, so I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the way of the rightly-guided caliphs who will come after me, and cling firmly to it. Beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray. And there are many ahaadeeth with a similar meaning.
Warnings against bid’ah (innovation) have been narrated from the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and from the righteous salaf after them, because this is no more than adding things to the religion and instituting a religion that Allaah has not ordained, and it is an imitation of the enemies of Allaah, the Jews and the Christians, in their additions to their religions and introducing into them things that Allaah had not ordained. It also implies that there is something lacking in Islam, and that it is not complete, and it is well known that this leads to great mischief and evil, and goes against the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”
It also goes against the ahaadeeth of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which warn against innovation (bid’ah).
I hope that the evidence we have quoted will be sufficient to convince the seeker of truth that this bid’ah is wrong, i.e., the innovation of celebrating the night of the Isra’ and Mi’raaj, and that it is not part of the religion of Islam at all.
Because Allaah has enjoined being sincere towards the Muslims and explaining what Allaah has prescribed for them in their religion, and because it is haraam to conceal knowledge, I thought that I should point out this innovation, which is so widespread in many regions that people think it is part of the religion, to my Muslim brothers. Allaah is the One Whom we ask to set the affairs of all the Muslims straight, and to bless them with knowledge of Islam, and to help us and them to adhere steadfastly to the truth, and to forsake everything that goes against it, for He is able to do that. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Messenger, our Prophet Muhammad, and his family and companions.
Women In Christianity And Islam
Whenever the topic of Islam is brought up among Westerners, it has been my experience that the first objection that immediately springs into their minds is: “But women are so extremely oppressed in Islam.”
And, “But women are second class citizens in Islam.” For example, they see that Muslim women usually observe modest standards in their clothing and they automatically equate their modesty with oppression.
They appear to feel that freedom is in some way directly proportional to how little clothing one wears and that oppression is directly proportional to the degree of modesty one exhibits in their clothing. Although this topic does not directly relate to the main topic of this book, still it seems inevitable to touch on this subject even if only very briefly, due to it’s importance.
The problem is twofold: First of all, people who make such objections usually only have A very superficial knowledge of the true teachings of Islam, and secondly, they do not realize what The Bible requires of all believing women.
I was once passing through Canada with in laws and their family. As we walked down the street, a Canadian Christian girl (in her late teens-perhaps early twenties) passed by us with a group of her friends. She looked at my mother in law who was dressed in modest clothing and had a large scarf wrapped around her head such that only her face was showing. She then stopped my mother in law and said words to the effect of: “Why do you allow your men to oppress you? Why do you wear these clothes?”
Now, my mother in law is a university graduate, a straight A student, highly respected by her peers, and gainfully employed as an inspector of the public educational system back in my home country. My mother in law has also distinguished herself in her study of the English language and it’s grammatical structure. However, she did not have an extensive working knowledge of American and Canadian pronunciation and slang, and thus, she missed the tone with which this question was delivered to her.
I decided to move a reasonable distance away, and let her handle this situation herself. My mother in law was very happy to answer this girl’s question and went on to explain to her about our religion and customs and how we prefer to dress modestly, and that Allah Almighty requires us to do this. However, this was not the answer this girl was looking for so she retorted: “Thanks for sharing!,” then spun around and stormed off.
Now, in my home country, our elders are quite used to being highly respected by those who are younger than them and being served by them. For this reason, it did not even occur to my mother in law that this question could have been anything more than a young girl respectfully asking an innocent question of a trusted elder, and I hated to tell her otherwise. I would have hated for her to leave Canada thinking that all Canadians or all Christians speak this way to their elders, since I know that this is not the true case. However, this episode did indeed sadden me.
Many non-Muslims feel sorry for any Muslim women they see adorned in their modest clothing. They feel that they are deprived the freedom to roam around in more scant and revealing clothing. Anyone who lives in a manner other that which they have become accustomed to is seen by them to be oppressed and forced to live in this manner. There are certain tribes in the Amazon jungle, in Australia, and in Africa, which have become accustomed to walking around in a simple g-string around their waist. What would the people of the West say if these people were to condemn the Western habit of “forcing” their women to wear “excessive amounts of clothing” and to demand that all women in the west immediately stop wearing anything but the simplest g-string around their waist? What if they were to say that the Western society should immediately stop unjustly persecuting their women and preventing them from freely roaming the streets wearing only a pair of socks? They would say that the people making these demands have no morals or shame. Philosophers would have a field day with such a question.
What if someone were to claim that it was immoral, discriminatory, and unjust to separate men and women indifferent public bathrooms the same as it is not just to do so with blacks and whites. What if this person were to then call (in the interest of equality, fairness, and constitutional freedom of course) for a merging of men and women’s bathrooms into one “unisex” or “equal-opportunity” bathrooms for both men and women? Once again, the philosophers would have a field day. Anyone who follows the news will see that this may indeed be where the USA is now headed. In the New York Post (31 Aug. 1994 or a little before) it was reported that women have now won the right to appear topless in the New York subway system. Where will the USA be a few years from now? That is anyone’s guess.
Who has the power to determine what decent and modest clothing is? Who is to determine what decent and modest behavior is? Muslims assign this right to God alone. This is the essence of “Islam.” “Islam” means “The submission to the will of God.” What God commands, a Muslim does. They do not demand that God justify his commands before they accept them. Once they have verified that a command is indeed from God then they abide by it without hesitation.
We can indeed find this lesson in the story of Adam. In the Islamic version of the story of Adam (slightly different than that of Judaism/Christianity), Adam and Eve were created by God, educated, clothed, and then allowed to inhabit heaven. They were told by God that they could have anything their hearts desired except they must not eat from the tree. Out of envy, the devil encouraged them to eat from the tree and told them that its fruit would make them angles or immortal. They ate from the tree and immediately, their bodies were revealed to one another, so they took to scooping up the leaves off the trees in order to cover themselves. This is when Allah sent them down to earth. What mankind learned from this lesson is that just because a person does not know the wisdom behind a command of God, and others tell him to disobey it, by the time the reason for the command is made apparent to them it may be too late.
Example of dress worn by a Christian nun. Compare it with how Muslim women dress today.
Well then, what is the Biblical view on these matters? Actually, even in this day and age there still remain traces in Christianity of the common ancestry with Islam in regard to the accepted norms of modest dress for Christian women as ordained by her Creator. In the above figure we have an example of the sort of dress codes observed by Christian nuns. We are strangely amazed to find that it is almost the striking similarity it bears to the sort of outfit, which most Muslim women wear. Why is that? Well, although there are quite a number of very pronounced differences between Biblical and Qur’anic laws in this regard, let us start with the following:
What the New Testament has to say:
1 Timothy 2:11-14 “Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.”
1 Corinthians 14:34 “Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.”
1 Corinthians 11:5-10: “But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, for as much as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.”
1 Corinthians 11:13: “Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God (with her head) uncovered?”
What the Old Testament has to say:
Genesis 3:12-16 “And the man (Adam) said, The woman (Eve) whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.”
Leviticus 12:2-5 “Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a MALE child: then she shall be unclean SEVEN DAYS; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. And she shall then continue in the blood of her purifying THIRTY THREE days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled. But if she bear a FEMALE child, then she shall be unclean TWO WEEKS, as in her separation: and she shall continue in the blood of her purifying SIXTY SIX days.“
Ecclesiastics 7:26-28 “And I find more bitter than death the woman who is a snare, whose heart is a trap and whose hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but the sinner she will ensnare….while I was still searching but not finding, I found one upright man among a thousand but not one upright woman among them all”.
Leviticus 15:19-30 “And if a woman have an issue (her period/menses), [and] her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put apart seven days: and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even.
And every thing that she lieth upon in her separation shall be unclean: every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sat upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. And if it [be] on [her] bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even. And if any man lie with her at all, and her flowers be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and all the bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days out of the time of her separation, or if it run beyond the time of her separation; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness shall be as the days of her separation: she [shall be] unclean. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her separation: and whatsoever she sitteth upon shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her separation. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And the priest shall offer the one [for] a sin offering, and the other [for] a burnt offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness.” SEE ALSO WOMEN IN THE BIBLE
In other words, the Bible teaches us that:
1. Women should learn in silence and subjugation.
2. Women should not teach.
3. Women should not have authority over men but should remain silent.
4. Adam and Eve were not equal in sin. Adam was not deceived but Eve was.
5. Women are commanded to be under obedience to men. God ordained that men shall for all time rule over women
6.Women must keep silent in Churches. It is shameful for them to open their mouths therein. If they have a question they should ask their husbands before going to church and then their husbands will ask for them in the church.
7. A woman should neither pray nor profess with her head uncovered.
8. If a woman prays with her head uncovered then she might as well shave her head.
9. Man was created in the image and glory of God, and Woman was created in the glory of Man, thus Man must have power over her.
10. Any woman who delivers a male baby shall be unclean for one week. But any woman who delivers a female baby shall be unclean for TWO weeks. Thus, females make their mothers DOUBLY unclean as compared to males.
11. While it is possible to find one upright man in every thousand, it is impossible to find even one single upright woman in every thousand
12. Woman is a snare, her heart is a trap, and her hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but she will ensnare the sinner.
13. If a woman had her period and touches a chair or a bed or anything else then that item immediately becomes unclean. Anyone who then touches those things shall also become unclean. They must then bathe themselves and wash their clothes because they have touched an item that a menstruous woman has touched.
What the canonized saints of Christianity said about women:
“Woman is a daughter of falsehood, a sentinel of Hell, the enemy of peace; through her Adam lost paradise” (St. John Demascene)
“Woman is the instrument which the devil uses to gain possession of our souls” (St. Cyprian)
“Woman is the fountain of the arm of the devil, her voice is the hissing of the serpent” (St. Anthony)
“Woman has the poison of an asp, the malice of a dragon” (St. Gregory)
St. Tertullian, while he was talking to his ‘best beloved sisters’ in the faith, he said, “Do you not know that you are each an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live too. You are the Devil’s gateway: You are the unsealer of the forbidden tree: You are the first deserter of the divine law: You are she who persuaded him whom the devil wasn’t valiant enough to attack. You destroyed so easily God’s image, man.” Once again, St. Augustine wrote to a friend, “What is the difference whether it is in a wife or a mother; it is still Eve the temptress that we must beware of in any woman.”
Centuries later, St. Thomas Aquinas still considered women as defective, “As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active force in the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of woman comes from a defect in the active force or from some material indisposition, or even from some external influence.”
Orthodox Jewish men in their daily morning prayer recite “Blessed be God King of the universe that Thou has not made me a woman.” The women, on the other hand, thank God every morning for “making me according to Thy will”
According to the Jewish Talmud, “women are exempt from the study of the Torah.” In the first century C.E.,Rabbi Eliezer said: “If any man teaches his daughter Torah it is as though he taught her lechery”
According to Rabbi Dr. Menachem M. Brayer (Professor of Biblical Literature at Yeshiva University) in his book ‘The Jewish woman in Rabbinic literature’, it was the custom of Jewish women to go out in public with a head covering which, sometimes, even covered the whole face leaving one eye free. He quotes some famous ancient Rabbis saying, “It is not like the daughters of Israel to walk out with heads uncovered” and “Cursed be the man who lets the hair of his wife be seen…a woman who exposes her hair for self-adornment brings poverty.” Rabbinic law forbids the recitation of blessings or prayers in the presence of a bareheaded married woman since uncovering the woman’s hair is considered “nudity” . Dr. Brayer also mentions, that “During the Tannaitic period the Jewish woman’s failure to cover her head was considered an affront to her modesty. When her head was uncovered she might be fined four hundred zuzim for this offense.” Dr. Brayer also explains that veil of the Jewish woman wasn’t always considered a sign of modesty. Sometimes, the veil symbolized a state of distinction and luxury rather than modesty. The veil personified the dignity and superiority of noble women. It, also, represented a woman’s inaccessibility as a sanctified possession of her husband. It is clear in the Old Testament that uncovering a woman’s head was a great disgrace and that’s why the priest had to uncover the suspected adulteress in her trial by ordeal (Numbers 5:16-18).
St. Tertullian in his famous treatise ‘On the Veiling of Virgins’ wrote, “Young women, you wear your veils out on the streets, so you should wear them in the church, you wear them when you are among strangers, then wear them among your brothers…” Among the Canon laws of the Catholic Church today, there is a law that require women to cover their heads in church.
Some Christian denominations, such as the Amish and the Mennonites for example, keep their women veiled to the present day. The reason for the veil, as offered by their Church leaders, is “The head covering is a symbol of woman’s subjection to the man and to God”: The same logic introduced by St. Paul in the New Testament.
Russian Orthodox women are expected to wear a head covering when in the church. Most don’t outside of it in America, but many in Russia do, along with women in other eastern Orthodox countries Europe.
These are only a small sampling. For many more similar quotations please obtain a copy of the 70 page book”Women in Islam Versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & The Reality,” By Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
Furthermore, according to the Old Testament, a childless widow must marry her husband’s brother, even if he is already married and regardless of her consent, so that she might bear a child from him (Genesis 38).
Additionally, according to the Bible:
“If a man happens to meet a virgin who is not pledged to be married and rapes her and they are discovered, he shall pay the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver. He must marry the girl, for he has violated her. He can never divorce her as long as he lives” Deuteronomy 22:28-30
One must ask a simple question here, who is really punished, the man who raped the woman or the woman who was raped? What is to prevent someone from finding the best looking woman in town, raping her, telling everyone about it, and then having the courts force her to be his wife for the rest of her life?
According to Numbers 27:1-11, widows and sisters don’t inherit at all. Daughters can inherit only if their deceased father had no sons.
So what is the standpoint of the Qur’an with regard to women? Women are indeed commanded by Allah to cover their heads and wear modest clothing, however, in Islam this is not a sign of denigration or subjugation to men, rather, it is a sign of chastity, modesty, and the fear of God. It also designates this woman to all men who might deal with her that she is to be dealt with respect. This could be compared to the situation in the West when one meets a nun or priest, how the nun’s habit and the priest’s robes signal those who meet them, that this person does not condone vulgarity of speech or evil actions.
This is made apparent in the Noble Qur’an in Surrah Al-Ahzab:
“… that is closer to their being recognized so that they shall not be abused, and Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful”
[Al-Ahzab(33):59, (also see Noor(24):31)]
What about the rights of women in Islam?
Are they indeed, as the popular propaganda would have us believe, “second class citizens”? Let us read the Qur’an:
“And they (women) have rights similar to those of men over them in a just manner.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Baqarah(2):228)
“And their Lord has heard them (and He says): Verily! I suffer not the work of any worker, male or female, to be lost. You proceed one from another. So those who fled and were driven forth from their homes and suffered damage for My cause, and fought and were slain, verily I shall remit their evil deeds from them and verily I shall bring them into Gardens underneath which rivers flow. A reward from Allah. And with Allah is the fairest of rewards.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, A’al-Umran(3):195)
“And covet not the thing in which Allah has made some of you excel others. Unto men a fortune from that which they have earned, and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned. (Envy not one another) but ask Allah of His bounty. Verily! Allah is Knower of all things.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):32)
“Unto the men (of a family) belongs a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much, a legal share.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):77)
“And whoso does good works, whether of male or female, and he (or she) is a believer, such will enter paradise and they will not be wronged the dint in a date stone.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nissa(4):124)
“And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and they establish worship and they pay the poor-due, and they obey Allah and His messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Tauba(9):71)
“Whosoever does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily We shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.”
(The Noble Qur’an, Al-Nahil(16):97)
“And of His signs is this: He created for you spouses from yourselves that you might find tranquility in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo, herein indeed are signs for folk who reflect.”
(Translation of the The Noble Qur’an, Al-Room(30):21)
“Whoso does an ill deed, he will be repaid the like thereof, while whoso does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, (all) such will enter the Garden, where they will be nourished without stint.”
(Translation of The Noble Qur’an, Mumin(40):40)
In the Qur’an, both, Adam and Eve share the blame for eating from the tree. This can be seen in the Qur’an in such verses as Al-Baqarah(2):36, Al-A’araf(7):22-24.
They were also both forgiven by God Almighty for this sin. Actually, in one verse of the Qur’an (Taha(20):121), Adam is specifically blamed.
Islam encourages spouses to take each other’s council and to seek mutual agreement in matters which affect them, for example, in the Qur’an, Al-Bakarah(2):233 we read: “Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No one should be charged beyond their capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child.
And on the (father’s) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if you wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provided that you pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what you do.”
Husbands are commanded to treat their wives with kindness and respect. In Al-Nissa(4)-19 we read “…But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein Allah has placed much good.”
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The best believers are the best in conduct, and the best of you are those who are best to their wives.” When Muhammad (pbuh) first became the prophet of Islam, the Pagans of Arabia had inherited a similar disregard for woman as had been passed down among their Jewish and Christian neighbors. It was considered so disgraceful among them to be blessed with a female child that they would go so far as to bury this baby alive in order to avoid the disgrace associated with female children.
Through the teachings of Islam, Muhammad (pbuh) put a swift and resounding end to this evil practice. Not only did he severely discourage and condemn this act but he also used to teach them to respect and cherish their daughters and mothers as partners and sources of salvation for the men of their family:
AbuSa’id al-Khudri narrated: “The Prophet (pbuh) said: If anyone cares for three daughters, disciplines them, marries them (to other men), and does good by them, he will enter Paradise.” (Narrated by Abu-Dawood)
Abdullah the son of Abbas narrated: “The Prophet (pbuh) said: If anyone has a female child, and does not bury her alive, or slight her, or prefer his male children over her, Allah will bring him into Paradise.” (Narrated by Abu-Dawood)
Muhammad (pbuh) is also sited in “Sahih Muslim” as saying:
“Whoever maintains two girls till they attain maturity, he and I will come on the Day of Resurrection like this; and he joined his fingers”.
In other words, if one loves the messenger of Allah and wishes to be with him on the day of resurrection in heaven, then they should do good by their daughters.
The woman in Hijab is the wife of Hashim Amla (South African Cricket Player). MA SHA ALLAH! Love her confidence.
May Allah Subhana Taala Bless her and reward her. Ameen Suma Ameen
✿ A woman modestly dressed is like a pearl in its shell.
✿ The value of a woman rests in her level of Taqwa (Piousness) and good deeds, not in her apparent looks and wordly earnings.
♥ ALHAMDULILLAH ♥
To learn more about the rights of women in Islam, the issue of modest dress codes, the issue of polygamy, and many other issues which can not be covered here, I highly recommend the following books:
1.Women in Islam Versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & The Reality, By Dr.
Sherif Abdel Azeem, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
2.“The Status of Women in Islam,” by Dr. Jamal A. Badawi, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
3.“Women’s rights in Islam,” by Lea Zaitoun, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
4.“Gender Equity in Islam,” by Dr. Jamal Badawi, World Assembly of Muslim Youth.
Brayer M. Menachem. Psychosocial Perspective (New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 1986)
Henning M. Clara. ” Cannon Law and the Battle of the Sexes” in Rosemary R. Ruether, (Ed), Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974)
Kendath Thena. “Memories of an Orthodox youth” in Susannah Heschel (Ed.) On being a Jewish Feminist, (New York: Schocken Books, 1983)
Kraybill B. Donald. The riddle of the Amish Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,1989)
Swidler J. Leonard. Women in Judaism: the Status of Women in Formative Judaism, Metuchen, (N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976)
What the Bible says about
Muhammad, The Prophet of Islam
by Ahmed Deedat
SAY: “DO YOU SEE ? WHETHER THIS MESSAGE BE FROM ALLAH (God Almighty), AND YET YOU REJECT IT, AND A WITNESS FROM AMONG THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL BORE WITNESS OF ONE LIKE HIM…….” (Holy Qur’an 46:10). (see note 1)
Mr.Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,
The subject of this evening’s talk – “What the BIBLE says about MUHAMMED” – will no doubt come as a surprise to many of you because the speaker is a Muslim. How does it come about that a Muslim happens to be expounding prophecies from the Jewish and Christian Scriptures ?
As a young man, about 30 years ago, I attended a series of religious lectures by a Chriatian theologian, a certain Rev. Hiten, at the “Theatre Royal”, Durban in South Africa.
Pope or Kissinger?
This Reverend gentleman was expounding Biblical prophecies. He went on to prove that the Christian Bible foretold the rise of Soviet Russia, and the Last Days. At one stage he went to the extent of proving that his Holy Book did not leave even the Pope out of its predictions. He expatiated vigo rously in order to convince his audience that the “Beast 666” mentioned in the Book of Revelation the last book of the New Testament was the POPE, who was the Vicar of Christ on earth. It is not befitting for us Muslims to enter into this controversy between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants. By the way, the latest Christia exposition of the “Beast 666” of the Christian Bible is Dr.Henry Kissinger(2). Christian scholars are ingenious and indefatigable in their efforts to prove their case.
Rev. Hiten’s lectures led me to ask that if the Bible foretold so many things – not even excluding the “Pope” and “Israel” – then surely it must have something to say about the greatest benefactor of mankind(3) , the Holy Prophet Muhammed (may the peace of Allah be upon him).
As a youngster I set out to search for an answer. I met priest after priest, attended lectures, and read everything that I could lay my hands relating to the fields of Bible prophecies. Tonight I am going to narrate to you one of these interviews with a dominee(4) of the Dutch Reformed Church.<
P> Lucky Thirteen
I was invited to the Transvaal(5) to deliver a talk on the occasion of Birthday celebration of the Holy Prophet Muhammed. Knowing that in that province of the Republic, the Afrikaans language is widely spoken, even by my own people, I felt that I ought to acquire a smattering of this language so a s to feel a little “at home” with the people. I opened the telephone directory and began phoning the Afrikaans-speaking Churches. I indicated my purpose to the priests that I was interested in having a dialogue with them, but they all refused my request with “Plausible” excuses. No.13 was my lucky number. The thirteenth call brought me pleasure and relief. A dominee Van Heerden agreed to meet me at his home on the Saturday afternoon that I was to leave for Transvaal.
He received me on his verandah with a friendly welcome. He said if I did not mind, he would like his father-in-law from the Free State (a 70 year old man) to join us in the discussion. I did not mind. The three of us settled down in the dominee’s library.
I posed the question: “What does the Bible say about Muhummed?” Without hesitation he answered, “Nothing!” I asked: “Why nothing? According to your interpretation the Bible have so many things to say about the rise of Soviet Russia and about the Last Days and even about the Pope of the Roman Ca tholics?” He said, “Yes, but there was nothing about Muhummed!” I asked again, “Why nothing? Surely this man Muhummed who had been responsible for the bringing into being a world-wide community of millions of Believers who, on his authority, believe in:
(1) the miraculous birth of Jesus,
(2) that Jesus is the Messiah,(note 6)
(3) that he gave life to the dead by God’s permission, and that he healed those born blind and the lepers by God’s permission.
Surely this book (the Bible) must have something to say about this great Leader of men who spoke so well of Jesus and his mother Mary?”
The old man from the Free State replied. “My son, I have been reading the Bible for the past 50 years, and if there was any mention of him, I would have known it.”
Not One by name!
I enquired: “According to you, are there not hundreds of prophecies regarding the coming of Jesus in the Old Testament.” The dominee interjected: “Not hundreds, but thousands!” I said, “I am not going to dispute the ‘thousand and one’ prophecies in the Old Testament regarding the coming of Jesu s Christ, because the whole Muslim-world has already accepted him without the testimony of any Biblical prophecy. We Muslims have accepted the de facto Jesus on the authority of Muhummed alone, and there are in the world today no less than 900,000,000 followers of Muhummed who love, respect and rev ere Jesus Christ as a great Messenger of God without having the Christians to convince them by means of their Biblical dialectics. Out of the ‘thousands’ of prophecies referred to, can you please give me just one single prophecy where Jesus is mentioned by name? The term ‘Messiah’, translated as ‘C hrist’, is not a name but a title. Is there a single Prophecy where it says that the name of the Messiah will be JESUS, and that his mother’s name will be MARY, that his supposed father will be JOSEPH THE CARPENTER; that he will be born in the reign of HEROD THE KING, etc. etc.? No! There are no su ch details! Then how can you conclude that those ‘thousand’ Prophecies refer to Jesus (Peace be upon him)?”
What is Prophecy?
The dominee replies: “You see, prophecies are word-pictures of something that is going to happen in the future. When that thing actually comes to pass, we see vividly in these prophecies the fulfilment of what had been predicted in the past.” I said: “What you actually do is that you deduce, yo u reason, you put two and two together.” He said: “Yes.” I said: “If this is what you have to do with a ‘thousand’ prophecies to justify your claim with regards to the genuineness of Jesus, why should we not adopt the very same system for Muhummed?” The dominee agreed that it was a fair proposition , a reasonable way of dealing with the problem.
I asked him to open up Deuteronomy, chapter 18, verse 18, which he did. I read from memory the verse in Afrikaans, because this was my purpose in having a little practice with the language of the ruling race in South Africa. (8)
‘N PROFEET SAL EK VIR HULLE VERWEK UIT DIE MIDDE VAN HULLE BROERS, SOOS JY IS, EN EK SAL MY WOORDE IN SY MOND LE, EN HY SY SAL AAN HULLE SE ALLE WAT EK HOM BEVEEL. Deut.18: 18.
The English translation reads as follows:-
“I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren,
like unto thee,
and I will put my words in his mouth;
and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.” Deut.18:18.
Prophet Like Moses
Area of Comparison
||Married, children||Married, children||No marriage, no children|
||To Median||To Madinah||None|
||Hot pursuit||Hot pursuit/Battles||No similar encounter|
||Moral/Physical Victory||Moral/Physical Victory||Moral Victory|
||In his Lifetime (Torah)||In his lifetime (Al-Qur’an)||After him|
||Rejected then Accepted||Rejected then Accepted||Rejected (by most Israelites)|
Having recited the verse in Afrikaans, I apologised for my uncertain pronunciation, The dominee assured me that I was doing fine. I enquired: “To whom does this prophecy refer?” Without the slightest hesitation he answered: “JESUS!” I asked: “Why Jesus?… his name is not mentioned here.” The domin ee replied: “Since prophecies are word-pictures of something that is going to happen in the future, we find that the wordings of this verse adequately describe him. You see the most important words of this prophecy are ‘SOOS JY IS’ (like unto thee), – LIKE YOU – like Moses, and Jesus is like Moses. ” I questioned: “In which way is Jesus like Moses?” The answer was: “In the first place Moses was a JEW and Jesus was also a JEW; secondly, Moses was a PROPHET and Jesus was also a PROPHET – therefore Jesus is like Moses and that is exactly what God had foretold Moses – “SOOS JY IS”. “Can you think of any other similarities between Moses and Jesus?” I asked. The dominee said that he could not think of any. I replied: “If these are the only two criteria for discovering a candidate for this prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:18, then in that case the criteria could fit any one of the following Biblica l personages after Moses:- Solomon, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Malachi, John the Baptist etc., because they were also ALL Jews as well as Prophets. Why should we not apply this prophency to any one of these prophets, and why only to Jesus? Why should we make fish of one and fowl of anoth er?” The dominee had no reply. I continued: “You see, my conclusions are that Jesus is most unlike Moses, and if I am wrong I would like you to correct me.”
So staying, I reasoned with him: “In the FIRST place Jesus is not like Moses, because, according to you – ‘JESUS IS A GOD’, but Moses is not God. Is this true?” He said: “Yes.” I said: “Therefore, Jesus is not like Moses! SECONDLY, according to you – ‘JESUS DIED FOR THE SINS OF THE WORLD’, but Mose s did not have to die for the sins of the world. Is this true?” He again said: “Yes.” I said: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses! THIRDLY, according to you – ‘JESUS WENT TO HELL FOR THREE DAYS’, but Moses did not have to go there. Is this true?” He answered meekly: “Y-e-s.” I concluded: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses!” “But dominee,” I continued: “these are not hard facts, solid facts, they are mere matters of belief over which the little ones can stumble and fall. Let us discuss something very simple, very easy that if your little ones are called in to hear the discussion, would have no difficulty in following it, shall we?” The dominee was quiet happy at the suggestion.
Father and Mother
(1) “Moses had a father and a mother. Muhummed also had a father and a mother. But Jesus had only a mother, and no human father. Is this true?” He said: “Yes.” I said: “DAAROM IS JESUS NIE SOOS MOSES NIE, MAAR MUHUMMED IS SOOS MOSES!” Meaning: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses, but Muhummed is lik e Moses!” (By now the reader will realise that I was using the Afrikaans language only for practice purposes. I shall discontinue its use in this narration).
(2) “Moses and Muhummed were born in the normal, natural course, i.e. the physical association of man and woman; but Jesus was created by a special miracle. You will recall that we are told in the Gospel of St.Matthew 1:18″…..BEFORE THEY CAME TOGETHER,(Joseph the Carpenter and Mary) SHE WAS FOUND WITH CHILD BY THE HOLY GHOST.’ And St.Luke tells us that when the good news of the birth of a holy son was announded to her, Mary reasoned:’…….HOW SHALL THIS BE, SEEING I KNOW NOT A MAN? AND THE ANGEL ANSWERED AND SAID UNTO HER, THE HOLY GHOST SHALL COME UPON THEE, AND THE POWER OF THE HIGHEST SHALL OVERSHADOW THEE:……'(Luke 1:35). The Holy Qur’an confirms the miraculous birth of Jesus, in nobler and sublimer terms. In answer to her logical question:
” O MY LORD! HOW SHALL I HAVE A SON WHEN NO MAN HATH TOUCHED ME? “
The angel says in reply: “EVEN SO: ALLAH CREATETH WHAT HE WILLETH: WHEN HE HATH DECREED A PLAN, HE BUT SAITH TO IT “BE,” AND IT IS ” (9) (HOLY QUR’AN, 3:47).
It is not necessary for God to plant a seed in man or animal. He merely wills it and it comes into being. This is the Muslim conception of the of birth of Jesus.
(When I compared the Qur’an and the Biblical versions of the birth of Jesus to the head of the Bible Society in our largest City, and when I enquired: “Which version would you prefer to give your daughter, the QUR’ANIC version or the BIBLICAL version?” The man bowed his head and answered: “The Qur’anic.”) In short, I said to the dominee: “Is it true that Jesus was born miraculously as against the natural birth of Moses and Muhummed?”He replied proudly:”Yes!” I said:”Therefore Jesus is not like Moses, but Muhummed is like Moses. And God says to Moses in the Book of Deuteronomy 18:18 “LIKE UNTO THEE” (Like You, Like Moses) and Muhummed is like Moses.”
(3) “Moses and Muhummed married and begat children, but Jesus remained a bachelor all his life. Is this true?” The dominee said: “Yes.” I said: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses, but Muhummed is like Moses.”
Jesus Rejected by his People
(3) “Moses and Muhummed were accepted as prophets by their people in their very lifetime. No doubt the Jews gave endless trouble to Moses and they murmured in the wilderness, but as a nation, they acknowledged that Moses was a Messenger of God sent to them. The Arabs too made Muhummed’s life imposs ible. He suffered very badly at their hands. After 13 years of preaching in Mecca, he had to emigrate from the city of his birth. But before his demise, the Arab nation as a whole accepted him as the Messenger of Allah. But according to the Bible: ‘He (Jesus) CAME UNTO HIS OWN, BUT HIS OWN RECEIVED HIM NOT.’ (John 1:11). And even today, ofter two thousand years, his people- the Jews, as a whole, have rejeted him. Is this true?” The dominee said: “Yes.” I said: “THEREFORE JESUS IS NOT LIKE MOSES, BUT MUHUMMED IS LIKE MOSES.”
(5) “Moses and Muhummed were prophets as well as kings. A prophet means a man who receives Divine Revelation for the Guidance of Man and this Guidance he conveys to God’s creatures as received without any addition or deletion. A king is a person who has the power of life and death over his people. It is immaterial whether the person wears a crown or not, or whether he was ever addressed as king or monarch: if the man has the prerogative of inflicting capital punishment – HE IS A KING. Moses possessed such a power. Do you remember the Israelite who was found picking up firewood on Sabbath Day , and Moses had him stoned to death? (Numbers- 15:13).
There are other crimes also mentioned in the Bible for which capital punishment was inflicted on the Jews at the behest of Moses. Muhummed too, had the power of life and death over his people. There are instances in the Bible of persons who wer e given gift of prophecy only, but they were not in a position to implement their directives. Some of these holy men of God who were helpless in the face of stubborn rejection of their mesage, were the prophets lot, Jonah, Daniel, Ezra, and John the Baptist. They could only deliver the message, but could not enforce the Law. The Holy Prophet Jesus (Peace b.u.h) also belonged to this category. The Christian Gospel clearly confirms this: when Jesus was dragged before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate, Charged for sedition, Jesus made a convincing point in his defence to refute the false charg e: JESUS ANSWERED, “MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD’: IF MY KINGDOM WERE OF THIS WORLD, THEN WOULD MY SERVANTS FIGHT, THAT I SHOULD NOT BE DELIVERED TO THE JEWS; BUT NOW IS MY KINGDOM NOT FROM HENCE”(John 18:36) This convinced Pilate (A Pagan) that though Jesus might not be in full possessio n of his mental faculty, he did not strike him as being a danger to his rule. Jesus claimed a spiritual Kingdom only; in other words he only claimed to be a Prophet. Is this true?” The dominee answered:”Yes.” I said:”Therefore Jesus is not like Moses but Muhummed is like Moses.”
No New Laws
(6) “Moses and Muhummed brought new laws and new regulations for their people. Moses not only gave the Ten Commandments to the Israelites, but a very comprehensive ceremonial law for the guidance of his people. Muhummed comes to a people steeped in barbarism and ignorance. They married their step-m others; they buried their daughters alive; drunkenness, adultery, idolatry, and gambling were the order of the day. Gibbon describe the Arabs before Islam in his “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, THE HUMAN BRUTE, ALMOST WITHOUT SENSE, IS POORLY DISTINGUISHED FROM THE REST OF THE ANIMAL CREATI ON.’ There was hardly anything to distinguish between the “man” and the “animal” of the time; they were animals in human form.
“From this abject barbarism, Muhummed elevated them, in the words of Thomas Carlysle, ‘into torch-bearers of light and learning.’ ‘TO THE ARAB NATION IT WAS AS A BIRTH FROM DARKNESS INTO LIGHT. ARABIA FIRST BECAME ALIVE BY MEANS OF IT. A POOR SHEPHERD PEOPLE, ROAMING UNNOTICED IN ITS DESERTS SINCE THE CREATION OF THE WORLD. SEE, THE UNNOTICED BECOMES WORLD NOTABLE, THE SMALL HAS GROWN WORLD-GREAT. WITHIN ONE CENTURY AFTERWARDS ARABIA WAS AT GRANADA ON ONE HAND AND AT DELHI ON THE OTHER. GLANCING IN VALOUR AND SPLENDOUR, AND THE LIGHT OF GENIUS, ARABIA SHINES OVER A GREA SECTION OF THE WORLD. …’ The fact is that Muhummed gave his people a Law and Order they never had before.
“As regards Jesus, when the Jews felt suspicious of him that he might be an imposter with designs to pervert their teachings, Jesus took pains to assure them that he had not come with a new religion – no new laws and no new regulations. I quote his own words: ‘THINK NOT THAT IAM COME TO DESTROY THE LAW, OR THE PROPHETS: IAM NOT COME TO DESTROY, BUT TO FULFIL. FOR VERILY I SAY UNTO YOU, TILL HEAVEN AND EARTH PASS, ONE JOT OR ONE TITLE SHALL IN NO WISE PASS FROM THE LAW, TILL ALL BE FULFILLED.'(Mathew 5:17-18). In other words he had not come with any new laws or regulation he came only to fulfil the old law. This what he gave the Jews to understand- unless he was speaking with the tongue in his cheek trying to bluff the Jews into accepting him as a man of God and by subterfuge trying to ram a new religion down their throats. No! This Messenger of God would never resort to such fo ul means to subvert the Religion of God. He himself fulfilled the laws. He observed the commandments of Moses, and he respected the Sabbath. At no time did a single Jew point a finger at him to say, ‘why don’t you fast’ or ‘why don’t you wash your hands before you break bread’,which charges they al wasy levied against his disciples, but never against Jesus. This is because as a good Jew he honoured the laws of the prophets who preceded him. In short, he had created no new religion and had brought no new law like Moses and Muhummed. Is this true?” I asked the dominee, and he answered: “Yes.” I said:”Therefore, Jesus is not like Moses but Muhummed is like Moses.”
How they Departed
(7) “Both Moses and Muhummed died natural deaths, but according to Christianity, Jesus was violently killed on the cross.(10) Is this true?” The dominee said: “Yes.” I averred: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses but Muhummed is like Moses.”
(8) “Moses and Muhummed both lie buried in earth, but according to you, Jesus in heaven. Is this true?” The dominee agreed. I said: “Therefore Jesus is not like Moses but Muhummed is like Moses.”
Ishmael The First Born
Since the dominee was helplessly agreeing with every point, I said, “Dominee, so far what I have done is to prove only one point out of the whole prophecy- that is proving the phrase ‘LIKE UNTO THEE’ – ‘Like You’ ‘Like Moses’. The Prophecy is much more than this single phrase which reads as follows : “I WILL RAISE THEM UP A PROPHET FROM AMONG THEIR BRETHREN LIKE UNTO THEE…….” The emphasis is on the words- “From among their brethren.” Moses and his people, the Jews, are here addressed as a racial entity, and as such their ‘brethren’ would undoubtedly be the arabs. You see, the Holy Bible s peaks of Abraham as the “Friend of God”. Abraham had two wives – Sarah and Hagar. Hagar bore Abraham a son – HIS FIRST-BORN- ‘……And Abraham(11) called HIS SON’S name, which Hagar bare Ishmael.’ (Genesis 16:15). ‘And Abraham took Ishmael HIS SON……” (Genesis 17:23). ‘And Ishmael HIS SON was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.'(Genesis 17:25). Up to the age of THIRTEEN Ishmael was the ONLY son and sed of Abraham, when the covenant was ratified between God and Abraham. God grants Abraham another son through Sarah, named Isaac, wh o was very much the junior to his brother Ishmael.
Arabs and Jews
If Ishmael and Isaac are the sons of the same father Abraham, then they are brothers. And so the children of the one are the BRETHREN of the children of the other. The children of Isaac are the Jews and the Children of Ishmael are the Arabs – so they are BRETHREN to one another. The Bible affirms, ‘AND HE (ISHMAEL) SHALL DWELL IN THE PRESENCE OF ALL HIS BRETHREN.’ (Genesis 16:12). ‘AND HE (ISHMAEL) DIED IN THE PRESENCE OF ALL HIS BRETHREN.(Genesis 25:18). The children of Isaac are the brethren of the Ishmaelites. In like manner Muhummed is from among the brethren of the Israeli tes beause he was a descendant of Ishamel the son of Abraham. This exactly as the prophecy has it- ‘FROM AMONG THEIR BRETHREN’.(Deut.18:18). There the prophecy distinctly mentions that the coming prophet who would be like Moses, must arise NOT from the ‘children of Israel’ or from ‘among the mselves’, but from among their brethren. MUHUMMED THEREFORE WAS FROM AMONG THEIR BRETHREN!
Words in the Mouth
“The prophecy proceeds further:’…….AND I WILL PUT MY WORDS INTO HIS MOUTH…….’ What does it mean when it is said ‘I will put my words in your mouth’? You see, when I asked you (the dominee) to open Deuteronomy chapter 18, verse 18, at the beginning, and if I had asked you to read, and if you had read: would I be putting my words into your mouth?” The dominee answered: “No.” “But,” I continued: “If I were to teach you a language like Arabic about which you have no knowledge, and if I asked you to read or repeat after me what I utter i.e.:
“SAY: HE IS ALLAH THE ONE AND ONLY;
ALLAH, THE ETERNAL ABSOLUTE;
HE BEGETTETH NOT, NOR IS HE BEGOTTEN:
AND THERE IS NONE LIKE UNTO HIM.
(Holy Qur’an 112:1-4)( I read them in Arabic )
Would I not be putting these unheard words of a foreign tongue which you utter, into your mouth?” The dominee agreed that it was indeed so. In an identical manner, I said, the words of the Holy Qur’an, the Revelation vouchsafed by the Almighty God to Muhummed, were revealed.
History tells us that Muhummed was forty years of age. He was in a cave some three miles north of the City of Mecca. It was the 27th night of the Muslim month of Ramadaan. In the cave the Archangel Gabriel commands him in his mother tongue:’IQRA’ which means READ! or PROCLAIM! or RECITE! Muhummed w as terrified and in his bewilderment replied that he was not NOT LEARNED! The angel commands him a second time with the same result. For the third time the angel continues.
Now Muhummed, grasps, that what was required of him was to repeat! to rehearse! And he repeats the words as they were put into his mouth:
“READ! IN THE NAME OF THE LORD AND CHERISHER, WHO CREATED-
CREATED MAN, FROM A (MERE) CLOT OF CONGEALED BLOOD:
READ! AND THY LORD IS MOST BOUNTIFUL,-
HE WHO TAUGHT (THE USE OF) THE PEN,
TAUGHT MAN THAT WHICH HE KNEW NOT”.
(Holy Qur’an 96:1-5)
These are the first five verses which were revealed to Muhummed which now occupy the beginning of the 96th chapter of the Holy Qur’an.
The Faithful Witness
Immediately the angel had departed, Muhummed rushed to his home. Terrified and sweating all over he asked his beloved wife Khadija to ‘cover him up!’ He lay down, and she watched by him. When he had regained his composure, he explained to her what he had seen and heard. She assured him of her faith in him and that Allah would not allow any terrible thing to happen to him. Are these the confessions of an imposter? Would imposters confess that when an angel of the Lord confronts them with a Message from on High, they get fear-stricken, terrified, and sweating all over, run home to their wives? Any critic can see that his reactions and confessions are that of an honest, sincere man, the man of Truth- ‘AL-AMIN’ – THE Honest, the Upright, the Truthful. During the next twenty-three years of his prophetic life, words were ‘Put into his mouth’, and he uttered them. They made an indeliable imp ression on his heart and mind: and as the volume of the Sacred Scripture (Holy Qur’an) grew, they were recorded on palm-leaf libre, on skins and on the shoulder-blades of animals; and in the hearts of his devoted disciples. Before his demise these words were arranged according to his instructions i n the order in which we find them to-day in the Holy Qurann.
The words (revelation) were actually put into his mouth, exactly as foretold in the prophecy under discusiion: ‘AND I WILL PUT MY WORDS IN HIS MOUTH.'(Deut. 18:18).
Muhummed’s experience in the cave of Hira, later to be known as Jabal-un Noor – The Mountain of Light, and his response to that first Revelation is the exact fulfilment of another Biblical Prophecy. In the Book of Isaish. Chapter 29, verse 12, we read: “AND THE BOOK” (al-Kitaab,al-Quran the ‘Readin g’, the ‘Recitation’) “IS DELIVERED TO HIM THAT IS NOT LEARNED,” (Isaiah 29:12) “THE UNLETTERED PROPHET ” (Holy Qur’an 7:158) and the biblical verse continues : “SAYING, READ THIS, I PRAY THEE:” (the words “I pray thee”, are not in the Hebrew manuscripts; compare with the Roman Cathol ics’ “Douay Version and also with the “Revised Standard Versions”) “AND HE SAITH, I AM NOT LEARNED.” (“I am not learned.” is the exact translation of the Arabic words which Muhummed uttered twice to the Holy Ghose – the Archangel Gabriel, when he was commanded : “READ!”).
Let me quote the verse in full without a break as found in the “King James Version,” or the “Authorised version” as it is more popularly know “AND THE BOOK IS DELIVERED TO HIM THAT IS NOT LEARNED, SAYING, READ THIS I PRAY THEE: AND HE SAITH, I AM NOT LEARNED.”
Important note :
It may be noted that there were no Arabic Bibles(12) in existence in the 6th Century of the Christian Era when Muhummed lived and preachedl Besides, he was absolutely unlettered and unlearned. No human had ever taught him a word. His teacher was his Creator:
“HE DOES NOT SPEAK (AUGHT), OF (HIS OWN) DESIRE:
IT IS NO LESS THAN INSPIRATION SENT DOWN TO HIM:
HE WAS TAUGHT BY ONE MIGHTY IN POWER,”
(Holy Qur’an 53:3-5).
Without any human learning, ‘he put to shame the wisdom of the learned’.
“See!” I told the dominee, “how the prophecies fit Muhummed like a glove. We do not have to stretch prophecies to justify their fulfilment in Muhummed.”
The dominee replied, “All your expositions sound very well, but they are of no real consequence, because we Christians have Jesus Christ the “incarnate” God, who has redeemed us from the Bondage of Sin!”
I asked, “Not important?” God didn’t think so! He went to a great deal of trouble to have His warnings recorded. God knew that there would be people like you who will flippantly, light-heartedly discount his words, so he followed up Deuteronomy 18:18 with a dire warning: “AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, ” (it is going to happen) “THAT WHOSOEVER WILL NOT HEARKEN UNTO MY WORDS WHICH HE SHALL SPEAK IN MY NAME, I WILL REQUIRE IT OF HIM. (in the Catholic Bible the ending words are – “I will be the revenger”, I will take vengeance from him – I will take revenge!) “Does not this terrify you? God Almighty is threathening revenge! We shake in our pants if some hoodlum threathens us, yet you have no fear of God’s warning?”
“Miracle of Miracles! in the verse 19 of Deuteronomy chapter 18, we have a further fulfilment of the prophecy in Muhummed! Note the words-‘…..MY WORDS WHICH HE SHALL SPEAK IN MY NAME,” In whose name is Muhummed speaking?” I opened Yusuf Ali’s translation of the Holy Qur’an, at chapter 114- ‘Sura Nas’, or Mankind – the last chapter, and showed him the formula at the head of the charpter: and the meaning: “IN THE NAME OF GOD, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL.” And the heading of chapter 113: and the meaning: “IN THE NAME OF GOD, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL”. And every chapter downwards 112 , 111, 110…….was the same formula and the same meaning on every page, because the end SURAS (chapters) are short and take about a page each.
“And what did the prophecy demand?’ ……WHICH HE SHALL SPEAK IN MY NAME and in whose name does Muhummed speak?’IN THE NAME OF GOD, MOST GRACIOUS MOST MERCIFUL.’ The Prophecy is being fulfilled in Muhummed to the letter “Every chapter of the Holy Qur’an except the 9th begin with the formula: IN TH E NAME OF GOD, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL.’ The Muslim begins his every lawful act with the Holy formula. But the Christian begins: “In the name of the Father, son and holy ghost.'”(13)
Concerning Deuteronomy chapter eighteen, I have given you more than 15 reasons as to how this prophecy refers to Muhummed and NOT to Jesus.
Baptist Contradicts Jesus
In New Testament times, we find that the Jews were still expecting the fulfilment of the prophecy of ‘ONE LIKE MOSES’, refer John 1:19-25. When Jesus claimed to be the Messiah of the Jews,the Jews began to enquire as to where was Elias? The Jews had a parallel prophecy that before the coming of the Messiah, Elias must come first in his second coming. Jesus confirms this Jewish belief:
“…….ELIAS TRULY SHALL FIRST COME, AND RESTORE ALL THINGS. BUT I SAY UNTO YOU, THAT ELIAS IS COME ALREADY, AND THEY KNEW HIM NOT,…THEN THE DISCIPLES UNDERSTOOD THAT HE SPAKE UNTO THEM OF JOHN THE BAPTIST.”(Matthew 17:11-13).
According to the New Testament the Jews were not the ones to s wallow the words of any would-be Messiah. In their investigations they underwent intense difficulties in order to find their true Messiah. And this the Gospel of John confirms: “AND THIS IS THE RECORD OF JOHN,”(the Baptist) “WHEN THE JEWS SENT PRIESTS AND LEVITES FROM JERUSALEM TO ASK HIM, WHO ART THOU? AND HE CONFESSED AND DENIED NOT; BUT CONFESSED, I AM NOT THE CHRIST.” (This was only natural because there can’t be two Messiahs (14) at the same time. If Jesus was the Christ then John couldn’t be the Christ!) “AND THEY ASKED HIM, WHAT THEN? ART THOU ELIAS? AND HE SAITH, I AM NOT.”
(Here Joh n the Baptist contradicts Jesus! Jesus says that John is “Elias” and John denies that he is what Jesus ascribes him to be. One of the TWO (Jesus or John), God forbid!, is difinitely not speaking the TRUTH! On the testimony of Jesus himself, John the Baptist was the greatest of the Israelite prophet s:”VERILY I SAY UNTO YOU, AMOUNG THEM THAT ARE BORN OF WOMEN THERE HAS NOT RISENA GREATER THAN JOHN THE BAPTIST:… (Matthew 11:11).
We Muslims know John the Baptist as Hazrut YAHYAA Alai-his-salaam (peace be upon him). We revere him as a true prophet of Allah. The Holy Prophet Jesus known to us as Hazrut ISAA Alai-his-salaam (peace be upon him), is also esteemed as one of the mightiest messenger of the Almighty. How can we Musl ims impute lies to either of them? We leave this problem between Jesus and John for the Christians to solve, for their “sacred scriptures abound in discrepancies which they have been glossing over as the “dark sayings of Jesus”(15). We Muslims are really interested in the last questions posed to Jo hn the Baptist by the Jewish elite- “ART THOU THAT PROPHET? AND HE ANSWERED, NO.”(John 1:21)
Please note that three different and distinct questions were posed to John the Baptist and to which he gave three emphatic “NO’S” as answers. To recapitulate:-
1) ART THOU THE CHRIST?
2) ART THOU ELIAS?
3) ART THOU THAT PROPHET?
But the learned men of Christendom somehow only see two questions implied here. To make doubly clear that the Jews definitely had T-H-R-E-E separate prophecies in their minds when they were interogating John the Baptist, let us read the remonstrance of the Jews in the verses following:
“AND THEY ASKED HIM, AND SAID UNTO HIM, WHEY BAPTIZEST THOU THEN, IF THOU BE
a) NOT THAT CHRIST,
b) NOR ELIAS,
c) NEITHER THAT PROPHET?”
The Jews were waiting for the fulfilment of THREE distinct prophecies: One, the coming of CHRIST. Two the coming of ELIAS, and Three, the coming of THAT PROPHET.
If we look up any Bible which has a concordance or cross-references, the we will find in the marginal note where the words “the Prophet”, or “that Prophet” occur in John 1:25, that these words refer to the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 and 18. And that ‘that prophet’ – ‘the prophet like Moses’ – “L IKE UNTO THEE”, we have proved through overwhelming evidence that he was MUHUMMED and not Jesus!
We Muslims are not denying that Jesus was the “Messiah”, which word is translated as “Christ”.(16) We are not contesting the “thousand and one prophecies” which the Christians claim abound in the Old Testament foretelling the coming of the Messiah. What we say is that Deuteronomy 18:18 does NOT ref er to Jesus Christ but it is an explicit prophecy about the Holy Prophet MUHUMMED!”
The dominee, very politely parted with me by saying that it was a very interesting discussion and he would like me very much to come one day and address his congregation on the subject. A decade and half has passed since then but I am still awaiting that privilege.
I believe the dominee was sincere when he made the offer, but prejudices die hard and who would like to loose his sheep?
The Acid Test
To the lambs of Christ I say, why not apply that acid test which the Master himself wanted you to apply to any would be claimant to prophethood? He had said: “BY THEIR FRUITS YE SHALL KNOW THEM. DO MEN GATHER GRAPES FROM THE THORNS, OR FIGS FROM THE THISTLES? EVERY GOOD TREE WILL BEAR GOOD FRUIT AN D EVERY EVIL TREE WILL BEAR EVIL FRUIT….BY THEIR FRUITS YE SHALL KNOW THEM.
Why are you afraid to apply this test to the teachings of Muhummed? You will find in the Last Testament of God – the Holy Qur’an – the true fulfilment of the teachings of Moses and Jesus which will bring to the world the much-needed peace and happiness. “IF A MAN LIKE MOHAMED WERE TO ASSUME THE DIC TATORSHIP OF THE MODERN WORLD, HE WOULD SUCCEED IN SOLVING ITS PROBLEMS THAT WOULD BRING IT THE MUCH NEEDED PEACE AND HAPPINESS.”(George Bernard Shaw)
The Weekly Newsmagazine “TIME” dated July 15, 1974, carried a selection of opinions by various historians, writers, military men, businessmen and others on the subject: “Who Were History’s Great Leaders?” Some said that it was Hitler; others said-Gandhi, Buddha, Lincoln and the like. But Jules Mass erman, a United States psychoanalyst put the standards straight by giving the correct criteria wherewith to judge. He said: “LEADERS MUST FULFIL THREE FUNCTIONS:-
(1) Provide for the well-being of the led,
(2) Provide a social organization in which people feel relatively secure
(3) Provide them with one set of beliefs.”
With the above three criteria he searches history and analyses – Hitler, Pasteur, Gaesar, Moses, Confucius and the lot, and ultimately concludes:
“PEOPLE LIKE PASTEUR AND SALK ARE LEADERS IN THE FIRST SENSE. PEOPLE LIKE GANDHI AND CONFUCIUS, ON ONE HAND, AND ALEXANDER, CAESAR AND HITLER ON THE OTHER, ARE LEADERS IN THE SECOND AND PERHAPS THE THIRD SENSE. JESUS AND BUDDHA BELONG IN THE THIRD CATEGORY ALONE. PERHAPS THE GREATEST LEADER OF ALL TIMES WAS MOHAMMED, WHO COMBINED ALL THREE FUNCTIONS. To a lesser degree, MOSES DID THE SAME.”
According to the objective standards set by the Professor of the Chicago University, whome I believe to be Jewish, – JESUS and BUDDHA are now – here in the picture of the “Great Leaders of Mankind”, but by a queer coincidence groups Moses and Muhummed together thus adding further weight to the argu ment that JESUS is not like MOSES, but MUHUMMED is like MOSES: Deut.18:18 “LIKE UNTO THEE” – Like MOSES!
In conclusion, I end with a quotation of a Christian Reverend the commentator of the Bible, followed by that of his Master:
“THE ULTIMATE CRITERION OF A TRUE PROPHET IS THE MORAL CHARACTER OF HIS TEACHING.”(Prof.Dummelow.)
“BY THEIR FRUITS YE SHALL KNOW THEM.” (Jesus Christ)
A concluding suggestion : Come let us reason together !
SAY:”O PEOPLE OF THE BOOK!
COME TO COMMON TERMS AS BETWEEN US AND YOU:
THAT WE WORSHIP NONE BUT GOD;
THAT WE ASSOCIATE NO PARTNERS WITH HIM;
THAT WE ERECT NOT, FROM AMONG OURSELVES,
LORDS AND PATRONS OTHER THAN GOD.”
IF THEN THEY TURN BACK,
SAY:”BEAR WITNESS THAT WE (AT LEAST)
ARE MUSLIMS (BOWING TO GOD’S WILL).”
(Holy Qur’an 3:64)
“PEOPLE OF THE BOOK” is the respectful title given to the Jews and the Christians in the Holy Qur’an. The Muslims is here commanded to invite – “O People of the Book!” – O Learned People! O People who claim to be the recipients of Divine Revelation, of a Holy Scripture; let us gather together onto a common platform – “that we worship none but God”, because none but God is worthy of worship, not because “THE LORD THY GOD IS A JEALOUS GOD VISITING THE INIQUITY OF THE FATHERS UPON THE CHILDREN UNTO THE THIRD AND FOURTH GENERATION OF THEM THAT HATE ME.”(Exodus 20:25). But because He is ou r Lord and Cherisher, our Sustainer and Evolver, worthy of all praise, prayer and devotion.
In the abstract the Jews and the Christians would agree to all the three propositions contained in this Qur’anic verse. In practice they fail. Apart from doctrinal lapses from the unity of the One True God, (ALLAH_ Subha-nahu wa ta-ala) there is the question of a consecrated Priesthood (among the J ews it was hereditary also), as if a mere human being – Cohe or Pope, or Priest, or Brahuman, – could claim superiority apart from his learning and the purity of his life, or could stand between man and God in some special sense. ISLAM DOES NOT RECOGNISE PRIESTHOOD!
The Creed of Islam is given to us here in a nutshell from Holy Qur’an:
Say ye: “We believe in Allah,
And the revelation given to us,
And to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac,
Jacob, and the Tribes,
And that given to Moses and Jesus
And that given to (all)
Prophets from their Lord:
We make no difference
Between one and another of them:
And we bow to Allah (in Islam).”
(Holy Qur’an 2:136).
The Muslim position is clear. The Muslim does not claim to have a religion peculiar to himself. Islam is not a sect or an ethnic religion. In its view all Religion is one, for the Truth is one. IT WAS THE SAME RELIGION PREACHED BY ALL THE EARLIER PROPHETS. (Holy Qur’an 42:13). It was the truth taug ht by all the inspired Books. In essence it amounts to a consciousness of the Will and Plan of God and a joyful submission to that Will and Plan. IF ANYONE WANTS A RELIGION OTHER THAN THAT, HE IS FALSE TO HIS OWN NATURE, AS HE IS FALSE TO GOD’S WILL AND PLAN. Such a one cannot expect guidance, for he has deliberately renounced guidance.
(1) This refers to Moses. See Yusuf Ali’s commentaries Nos. 4783/4 to this verse.
(2) Christian exegesists give progressive numerical values by sixes, to the English alphabet and add up to get the total 666. i.e.A=6,B=12,C=18, D=24 and so on. Progression by 6’s because the number of the Beast in the Bible is “666”. Try it for Dr.Kissinger.
(3) The writer has just delivered another talk in the City Hall, Durban on the 10th December, 1975 on the subject “Muhummed the Greatest”.
(4) “Dominee” is the Afrikaans equivalent of priest, parson and predikant.
(5) One of the Provinces of the Republic of South Africa.
(6) The word “Messiah” comes from the Arabic and Hebrew word masaha which means to rub, to massage, to annoint. The religious significance is “the one who is anointed’ – priests and kings were anointed in consecration to their offices. Messiah translated Christ does not mean God. Even the heathen C yrus is called “Christ” in the Bible, (Isaiah 45:1)
(7) Muhummed is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomn 5:16. The Hebrew word used there is Muhammuddim. The end letters IM is plural of respect majesty and grandeur. Minus “im” the name would be Muhamudd translated as “altogether lovely” in the Authorised Version of the Bible or ‘The Praised One’ ‘the one worthy of Praise’ i.e. MUHUMMED!
(8) If this lecture is translated into any language, please change the Afrikaans words into the local dialect; and do not try a free hand translation of the Biblical quotation. Obtain a Bible in the language in which translation is being made and transcribe exactly as the words occur in that Bible.
(9) Please open the Holy Qur’an 3:42 and 19:16 where the birth of Jesus is spoken about; read it with the commentry, note the high position which Jesus and his mother occupy in Islam.
(10) Write for “Was Christ Crucified?” by the writer, free on request.
(11) According to the Bible Abraham’s name was Abram before it was changed by God to Abraham.
(12) There are today Arabic Bibles in Fourteen different scripts and dialects for the Arabs alone. See “The Gospels in many tongues”, obtainable from the Bible Society.
(13) The Christian theologians are ignorant of even the “name of God. Because “God” is not a name, and “Father” is also not a name. What’s his name? See “Muhummed-the Natural Successor to Christ”, by the author, available free.
(14) The Jews were expecting a single Messiah not two.
(15) See the “TIMES” Magazine December 30th, 1974, article “How true is the Bible?” And write for your free copy of “50,000 Errors in the Bible? a reproduction from the Christian Magazine “AWAKE!” September 8, 1957.
(15) How the word Messiah was transmuted to Christ? Write for booklet above, reference 13.
Marriage in Islam: Considered from a Legal Point of View
From a legal point of view Islam views marraige as an ‘Aqd or Contract.
Like any other contract the marriage contract requires full and free consent of the parties concerned. The parents or guardian of any of the parties may give advice, choose a marriage partner or use persuasion, but the final decision to enter into a marriage must be the result of a free choice on the part of each partner, even though this freely made choice may consist of nothing but accepting the choice of one’s parents or guardian. This right of free choice is fairly well recognized in the case of men but (unfortunately) not in the case of women. In the Holy Qur’an we read:
“Do not inherit women against their will” (4:19)
And in Hadith we find traditions like the following:
“Khansa bint Khidhan who had a previous marriage related that when her father married her and she disapproved of that, she went to the Messenger of God and he revoked her marriage.”
(Bukhari, Ibn Majah)
“A [girl who was not married] came to the Messenger of God and mentioned that her father had married her against her will, so the Prophet allowed her to exercise her choice.”
(Abu Da’ud, on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas)
Just as any adult can enter into any legal contract, so also any adult man or woman can arrange his or her own marriage, provided that during the process of arranging the marriage there is no sexual contact, in other words, there is no dating in the North American style. It is well known that Khadijah, the Prophet’s first wife arranged her own marriage with the Prophet. It is true that this happened before sayyadna Muhammad received prophethood. But if an arrangement by a woman of her own marriage were so shameful in the eyes of Allah as it is in the eyes of some Muslims, then He would have somehow prevented His Messenger from such a marriage. Moreover, there are some ahadith which show that even after receiving prophethood sayyadna Muhammad did not disapprove of women arranging their own marriage.We quote here one such hadith:
“A woman came to the Messenger of God and offered herself to him (in marriage). When she had stood for a long time (without receiving an answer) a man got up and said: Messenger of God! Marry her to me if you have no need of her. He asked the man if he had anything to give her as dower (marriage gift), and when he replied that he had nothing but the lower garment he was wearing, the Prophet said: Look for something, even though it be an iron ring. Then when the man had searched and found nothing, God’s Messenger asked him whether he new anything of the Qur’an. When the man replied that he knew Surah so and so and Surah so and so, God’s Messenger said: Go away, I give her to you in marriage. Teach her some of the Qur’an.
“(Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Sahl bin Sa’d)
In this hadith a woman is arranging her own marriage but the Prophet does not rebuke her or admonish her in any other way. Thus while it may not be the best thing for a woman to do, she can if she wishes, make a marriage proposal for herself without being blameworthy in the eyes of God.What are the terms involved in the marriage contract? This contract involves two things: First, a gift from the husband to the wife, which may be a sum of money, an object of some value such as a ring or such non-material things as acceptance of Islam or teaching a part of the Qur’an(1). Second, a commitment from both parties to try to make life physically comfortable for each other and to provide emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness to each other, with the responsibility for taking care of economic needs generally falling on the shoulders of the man.(2)
At the time of the marriage both partners should have the fullest possible intention of keeping the marriage commitment for life, although under some extreme circumstances it may perhaps be possible to enter into a marriage contract on a temporary basis.(3)
Even though the marriage commitment is for life, should it so happen that after marriage the two partners find it impossible to live together the Islamic law provides for the termination of the marriage contract. The termination of the marriage contract can be initiated by any party which has decided that the other party cannot or will not satisfactorily fulfill the commitment implicit in the marriage contract, namely, to provide enough physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness. It is evident that the judgment as to whether a marriage partner is getting enough satisfaction out of his or her marriage is a subjective one and therefore belongs entirely to the partner himself or herself. Consequently, for the dissolution of marriage Islam does not require that a partner prove to some authority such as a court that there has indeed been a failing on the part of the other partner in the fulfillment of his or her marital obligations. It is enough for the dissatisfied partner to say that he or she can no longer love or respect the other partner to be able to continue living with him or her. Third parties such as relatives, the community, etc. can and indeed should (4:35) get involved at some stage of marriage difficulties and try to prevent the break-up of the marriage through counseling, etc.; but they cannot oblige any marriage partner to remain in the marriage bond, as for example the catholic church or the Hindu tradition that obliges couples to remain tied in marriage until one of the partners dies.
A man can on his own dissolve the marriage by following a prescribed procedure, the details of which need not concern us here. A woman can dissolve the marriage by asking the husband to divorce her and if he refuses can go to court which should arrange the terms of dissolution as regards to compensation and order the husband to dissolve the marriage.(4) To avoid this procedure the woman can include in the marriage contract the condition that she can dissolve the marriage without having to go to court.
The party which initiates the divorce may have to pay some compensation to the other party. This compensation may be the return of the marriage gift in the case of a woman initiating the divorce(5) and payment of an alimony in the case of a man taking that step.
(6) Again, the details of these matters are out of the scope of this article.
The degree by which the husband has greater right
In the above outline of the legal view of marriage in Islam, man and women are completely equal partners except in the following respects:
1) Both parties make the equal responsibility to provide physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual happiness to each other, but men generally have the added responsibility to provide for the economic needs of the wife.
2) In case the husband initiates divorce, he is obliged by religious law to pay some maintenance expenses (2:241). This prescribed alimony belongs to the wife by right. However, when the woman initiates the divorce she does not pay any compensation to the husband as requirement of religious law; she need at most return part of what she received from the husband as dower if such payment is helpful in an amicable settlement. (2:229)
3) A man can divorce his wife on his own while a woman needs to go through court or introduce into the marriage a clause giving her the right to divorce her husband.
In regard to the above differences the Holy Qur’an says:
“And (wives) shall have rights similar to those (the husbands have) over them, in accordance with justice, (except that) husbands’ rights are a degree greater.” (2:228)”Husbands are guardians (qawwamun) of wives because God has favoured some more than others and because they (i.e. husbands generally) spend out of their wealth.” (4:34)
The first of the above two Qur’anic statements occurs in a long passage dealing with divorce and should be understood in relation to that context. The degree by which husband’s rights are greater should therefore be understood as the degree by which the husband is freer than the wife to break the marriage bond. This, however, is not a very big degree since as stated earlier the wife can get out of the marriage bond whenever she wants to, practically without giving any reason. It is only that she has to follow a more indirect procedure.The second Qur’anic statement refers to the greater responsibility husbands generally have as protectors and providers of women and to the greater say this gives them in making decisions.
The fact that husbands’ rights are a degree greater does not effect the claim that in Islam men and women have equal rights, since men’s greater rights within the marriage relationship do not mean that men also enjoy greater rights outside that relationship and since within the marriage relationship men’s greater rights are completely justified by their greater responsibility. We must remember here that whenever we talk about members of a society having equal rights it is never precluded that members of that society cannot freely enter into terminable arrangements in which some take greater responsibility and therefore also have greater rights. Equality of rights can only be asserted on the assumption of equality of responsibility. This principle sometimes works in favour of women. For example, as mothers women give much more to children than do men as fathers and so Islam recognizes greater rights of mothers over children than of fathers except where economic considerations demand otherwise.
(1) See the hadith quoted earlier in which the dower for marriage consists of the husband teaching a portion of the Holy Qur’an to the wife. In the following hadith it consists of the husband accepting Islam:
“Umm Sulaym had become a Muslim before Abu Talha and when he asked her in marriage she said: “I have become a Muslim. so if you also become one I shall marry you.” Abu Talha accepted Islam and that was the dower arranged between them.” (Nasa’i on the authority of Anas)
This hadith also supports the view that men and women can arrange their own marriage.
(2) See Qur’an 4:34. The wife can, however, with her own free will choose to share part of the economic burden. Khadijah helped the Prophet and Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, helped her poor husband Zubayr.
(3) This is the shi’a view. Sunni traditions admit that temporary marriage was at some point in time allowed in Islam but say that this was later forbidden.
(4) See Qur’an 2:229 in the light of the following hadith:
“The wife of Thabit bin Qays came to the Prophet and said, “Messenger of God, I do not reproach Thabit bin Qays in respect of character or religion but I do not want to be guilty of kufran regarding Islam (meaning that she did not like him enough as a marriage partner and so was afraid she might not give him the respect and love due to a husband).” God’s Messenger asked her if she would give back to Thabit his garden, and when she replied that she would, he told him to accept the garden and declare the divorce.” (Bukhari, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Ibn Abbas)
(5) See the hadith quoted in the previous note. The wife is not obligated by religious law to pay the compensation and need only do so as part of a settlement with the husband. (Qur’an 2:229)(6) “For divorced women a reasonable maintenance (should be provided). This is a duty on the righteous.” (Qur’an 2:241)
by Dr. Ahmad Shafaat (1984)
From now until the rest of your days your wife will be your partner, your companion, and your best friend.
She will share your moments, your days, and your years. She will share your joys and sorrows, your successes and failures, your dreams and your fears. When you are ill, she will take the best care of you; when you need help, she will do all she can for you; when you have a secret, she will keep it; when you need advice, she will give you the best advice. She will always be with you: when you wake up in the morning the first thing your eyes will see will be hers; during the day, she will be with you, if for some time she is not with you by her physical body, she will be thinking of you, praying for you with all her heart, mind, and soul;
when you go to sleep at night, the last thing your eyes will see will be her; and when you are asleep you will still see her in your dreams. In short, she will be your whole world and you will be her whole world.
The best description that I personally have ever read describing the closeness of the spouses to each other is the Qur’anic verse which says: “They are your garments and you are their garments.” (Surah Al Baqarah 2:187).
Indeed, spouses are like garments to each other because they provide one another with the protection, the comfort, the cover, the support, and the adornment that garments provide to humans. Just imagine a journey in the winter of Alaska without garments! Our spouses provide us with the same level of comfort, protection, cover, and support in the journey of our lives on this earth as garments would do in the Alaskan journey.
The relationship between the spouses is the most amazing of all human relations: the amount of love and affection, intimacy and closeness, mercy and compassion, peace and tranquillity that fills the hearts of the spouses is simply inexplicable.
The only rational explanation for these most amazing of all human feelings is that: it is an act of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, “And Allah has made for you Mates (and Companions of your own nature …” (Surah Al Nahl 16:72)
Only our Almighty Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala in His Infinite Power, Boundless Mercy, and Great Wisdom can create and ingrain these amazing and blessed feelings in the hearts of the spouses. In fact Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala is reminding those who search for His signs in the universe that these feelings in the hearts of the spouses are among the signs that should guide humans to His existence as He says in the Qur’an,
“And among His signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may dwell in tranquillity with them and He has put love and mercy between your hearts: verily in that are signs for those who reflect.” (Surah Al Rum 30:21)
But Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala knows that the human heart is not a static entity, it is sometimes weak and at times dynamic.
Feelings can and do change with time. Love may wither and fade away. The marital bond might weaken if not properly cared for.
Happiness in marriage cannot be taken for granted; continuous happiness requires constant giving from both sides. For the tree of marital love to remain alive and keep growing, the soil has to be sustained, maintained, watered and nurtured.
Remember that our Prophet Muhammad Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam had found the time to go out to the desert and race with his wife Aisha.
She outran him but later after she had gained some weight, he outran her. Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam took his wife to watch the young Ethiopians playing and dancing their folk dances. The show of emotions is necessary to keep the marital bond away from rusting and disintegrating. Remember that you will be rewarded by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala for any emotions you show to your wife as the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam said “One would be rewarded for anything that he does seeking the pleasure of Allah even the food that he puts in the mouth of his wife”
Never underestimate the importance of seemingly little things as putting food in your wife’s mouth, opening the car door for her, etc. Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam used to extend his knee to his wife to assist her up to ride the camel. Try to always find some time for both of you to pray together. Strengthening the bond between you and Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala is the best guarantee that your own marital bond would always remain strong. Having peace with Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala will always result in having more peace at home.
Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam gave glad tidings for those couples who wake up at night to pray together.
The Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam even urged the spouse who rises up first to wake the other spouse up, even by splashing cold water on his/her face. Always try your best to be good to your wife by words and by deeds. Talk to her, smile to her, seek her advice, ask for her opinion, spend quality time with her and always remember that the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam said, “The best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Finally, it is common that spouses vow to love and honor their spouses until death do them part. I do believe that this vow is good or even great, but not enough! It is not enough that you love your wife. You have to love what she loves as well. Her family, her loved ones must also become your loved ones. Don’t be like my colleague who was unhappy about his wife’s parents coming to visit for few weeks. He candidly said to her “I don’t like your parents.” Naturally she angrily looked at him straight in the eye and said, “I don’t like yours either.” Also, it is not enough that you love her until death do you part. Love should never end and we do believe there is life after death,
where those who did righteousness in this world will be joined by their spouses (Surah Al Zukhruf 43:70) and offsprings.
The best example in this regard is the Prophet Salallaahu ‘aliahi wa’sallaam whose love for Khadija, his wife of 25 years, extended to include all those she loved; this love of his continued even after her death. It was many years after her death and he never forgot her and whenever a goat was slaughtered in his house he would send portions of it to Khadija’s family and friends and whenever he felt that the visitor at the door might be Khadija’s sister Hala, he would pray saying, “O Allah let it be Hala.”
A lecture by; Sheikh Abdullah Adhami
Words to My Muslim Sister
My Dear Sister,
Know, my dear Muslim sister, that you are man’s sister and half of humanity. You are a mother, wife, daughter, sister, aunt, grand daughter or grand mother. The Prophet said, what translated means, Women are, indeed, men’s partners. [Abu Dawud]
You are a member of the great nation of Islam, the best nation ever produced for mankind.
No other nation on earth has more great men, leaders and conquerors than this nation. It is the nation of guidance and the straight religion, and it leads humanity to righteousness and truth.
It transforms people from worshippers of slaves to worshippers of the Lord of slaves, from life’s pressures to the pleasures of the Life after, and from the injustice of other religions to the justice of Islam.
Your ancestors, great women of Islam, were one of the main reasons for this great nation to take this great place among all nations. Allah, Who granted Islam to this nation, made a high place for Muslim women, and decreed that they share in the responsibilities of enjoining truth, forbidding evil and raising the flag of Islam. He said, what translated means,
“The believers, men and women, are loyalists of one another, they enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, they offer their prayers perfectly and give the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah will leave His Mercy on them. Surely Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [Noble Quran 9:71]
Allah has given Muslim women what they can bare of orders and duties. He is the God Who knows His creation,
“Should He not know what He created? And He is the Most Kind, All-Aware (of everything).” [Noble Quran 67:14]
My dear sister, you are called upon today to truly become an active member of the Muslim nation, strive to establish victory for Allah’s Word, implement the Quran and help build the generation of Iman.
What Do Your Enemies Want From You?
There are those who want to distract you from doing your duty. They want to distract you from meeting your noble obligation, that is, to defend the religion of Allah and raise His Word high. Those enemies use many methods:
First: They distract you from what Allah created you to perform of worship, belief and Da’wah (propagating Islam).
They use this worldly life as their bate: Jewelry stores, fashions that originate in non-Muslim countries, new models all the time, desires raised, hunger that can never be satisfied, pleasures and competition for them and endless ways for joy.
Allah did not create us for this. Indulging in these matters is usually accompanied by wasting time and money and igniting enmity and competition between the rich and the poor.
Second: They ignite enmity between you and man. To those sinners, you are a daughter that is put down, a humiliated mother, an abused wife and an oppressed sister! Men are always unjust, hypocrites, dictators, freedom- preventers and suppressers, according to them. There is a fabricated war that those evil ones are starting for no reason other than to direct you to rebel against your father, be arrogant with your brother and disobedient to your husband. They do not call for justice, mercy and unity. They call for hatred, arrogance and destruction.
Third: They do not stop at their call for rebellion against parents, brothers and husbands, rather, they plot against Islam. They call upon you to rebel against the obligations of Islam and the decrees of the All-Knowing King. Islam, to them, is unjust and Islamic laws are imperfect and restrictive. They call upon you, day and night, to rebel and insist on the disobedience of this religion. They try to rid you of your religion. They try to rid you of comfort and safety under generous parenthood, happy marriage and good brotherly relations.
Those devils portray piety and honor as chains on freedom. To them, Hijab does not cover the head, but also covers the mind; prayer, fasting and Zakat are a waste of time and effort; and obedience to husbands is slavery and a return to the stone age. They distorted all facts and changed all truths, all to serve their evil goals.
My Dear Sister,
The goals that your enemies and the enemies of your religion are seeking to achieve are well known. They want you to be available for them to fulfill their evil desires whenever they wish. They want you to be a mistress that has no honor. They want you to be found everywhere, on roads and in places of sin, without honor, religion or manners. They seek for you only what they want you to do.
The Western world has gone through this all. Women of the West are the part of society that is facing injustice and dishonor. They strive to please men who keep changing partners and seek pleasures but with no responsibility and no consideration of the evil consequences of their sinful actions.
O Muslim sister, read and know about those women who discarded shyness and honor and followed their desires, what was the result of their deeds? Was their end honorable and desirable, or was it a shameful and hated end?
Advice For My Sister In Islam
Be proud of your religion and the religion of your ancestors. Be a good example for your sons and daughters and sincere in your belonging to this mighty nation.
Know that honor is an honor to all wise people, and that adultery is dishonorable to all nations, even if some called it freedom. Know that adultery is also done with the eyes by seeing, with the ears by listening, and with the mouth by kissing, as was mentioned in a Hadith related by Imam Muslim.
Your happiness is in being an obedient and believing daughter, a loyal and generous wife and a pious and merciful mother.
Know that prayer is the cornerstone of Islam. Fasting one day, for the sake of Allah, takes your face seventy years away from Hellfire, as the Hadith, related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, states.
Charity is a major cause for gaining forgiveness and for repentance to be accepted.
Those women who are showing parts of their bodies to men, will not enter Paradise or smell its fragrance and are cursed, as in the Hadith related by Imam Muslim.
Hijab is an honor and protection for you. Hijab must be modest in color and not exotic, wide and thick and not revealing, different from the dress of non-Muslim women and men.
My Dear Sister,
These are words from the heart. These are words of good and sincere advice.
Beware of the loyalists of Satan who want to lead you astray.
Be a slave of Allah, righteous and descendent of righteous women and know your role in building this great nation.
Perform your duty and do not be a cause for destruction. Be a maker of righteous generation that will lead mankind, again, to what is right and proper, to the great religion of Islam.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Said:
The Prophet Mohammad (Peace be up on him) said:
من قرأ سورة الكهف في يوم الجمعة أضاء له من النور ما بين الجمعتين
Whoever recited Surah al Kahf on a Friday, Allah will kindle for him abundant light to brightly illuminate the period between the two Fridays (the Friday on which the recitation was made and the next Friday).
[Sahih Targhib w Tarhib: 736]
اللَّهُـمّ صَــــــلٌ علَےَ مُحمَّــــــــدْ و علَےَ آل مُحمَّــــــــدْ كما صَــــــلٌيت علَےَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ و علَےَ آل إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّك حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ اللهم بارك علَےَ مُحمَّــــــــدْ و علَےَ آل مُحمَّــــــــدْ كما باركت علَےَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ و علَےَ آل إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّك حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Indeed, all praises are due to Allah.
We praise Him, seek His Aid, and beg for His Forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil in ourselves and from the evil outcomes
of our deeds.
Whomsoever, Allah, Ta ‘Ala, guides, no one and nothing can take that person astray. Whomsoever, Allah, Ta ‘Ala, takes astray, no one or nothing can guide that person. I bear witness that there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah who is alone without any
associates. I bear witness that Muhammad ibnu ‘Abd Allah (PBUH) is Allah’s ‘Abd (slave) and Messenger.
Allah has commanded in the Qur’an (what means):
“O you who believe! Have Taqwah (true fear of Allah) according to His right and die not except that you are a Muslim.
O Mankind! Have Taqwah of your Lord. The One Who created you from a single soul and from him He created his mate and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual rights and do not cut off the ties of kinship; surely Allah is ever a Raqeeb (All-Watcher) over you.
O you who believe! Have Taqwah of Allah and always speak the truth. He will direct you to do
righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins.
And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) he has indeed achieved a great achievement.”
Verily, the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad ibnu ‘Abd Allah (PBUH). The worst of all affairs in this Diyn are innovations.
Every innovation is a Bid’ah and every Bid’ah is a going astray and every going astray is in the Hell Fire.
DEVELOPING TRUE LOVE FOR ALLAH’S MESSENGER (PBUH):
Having the proper love for Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) is a must for any Muslim who is striving to please his/her Lord and who seeks his/her Lord’s Forgiveness. Learning how to properly apply this love for the last Nabee (PBUH) is to properly implement the testimony: wa ash hadu ana Muhammadan rusulu Allah (PBUH). Indeed, one cannot just say he/she loves the Prophet (PBUH) while his/her actions and ‘Aqeedah are fundamentaly against what the Prophet (PBUH) brought (i.e. the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah).
Hence, the first step in the process of developing this love is to acknowledge that the Prophet (PBUH) has a claim over the believers.
Allah has said in the Qur’an (what means): “The Prophet (PBUH) is closer to the believers than their ownselves…”
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah (Rahimullah), one of the great scholars of this Ummah, relates that this Ayah means the Prophet (PBUH) has a “higher claim” on the believers than they have on themselves. This claim involves two important matters:
1.WE CONSIDER ALLAH’S MESSENGER (PBUH) TO BE DEARER THAN ONE’S OWN SELF.
This is so because this claim is based on love. One has the most claim to oneself for one loves oneself more than anything. Thus, a person knows what types of foods, clothing, etc.he/she likes to eat, drink, etc. more than all others. However, when it comes to Islam, we know that Allah knows us better than we know ourselves; thus, we submit to Him and His Orders.
We it comes to the Prophet (PBUH), we are to love him more than our own selves; thus,
we too put his commandments above our own opinions, logic, etc.
Once this true love is established, compliance, obedience, satisfication with his (PBUH) jugdements, and other matters related to true love will follow. This is confirmed in the following authentic Haadith found in Sahih Al-Bukhari:
Narrated ‘Abd Allah bin Hisham: ‘We were with the Prophet (PBUH) and he was holding the hand of ‘Umar ibnu Al-Khattab (RAA). ‘Umar said to him, “O Allah’s Messenger (PBUH)!
You are dearer to me than everything except my ownself.”
Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is, (you will not have complete Faith) untill I am dearer to you than your ownself.” Then ‘Umar (RAA) said:”However, now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my ownself.” He (PBUH) then said: “Now, O ‘Umar, (now you are a believer).”
LESSONS FROM THIS HAADITH:
A. The Negation and Affirmation:
The Prophet (PBUH) negates (i.e. rejects, denies) that a person can have complete Imaan with his statement, “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is…”. Thus, the affirmation,or condition of having complete Imaan, follows: “…until I am dearer to you than your ownself…”. Therefore, the Muslim will never attain true Imaan unless he/she considers the Prophet (PBUH) to be dearer to him/her than everything including one’s ownself.
B. Character of the Sahabah:
Upon hearing that true Imaan can only be achieved through loving the Messenger (PBUH) more than everything, including one’s self, ‘Umar (RAA) quickly complied with the commandment of the Prophet (PBUH). The Sahabah wasted no time in doing those acts which were pleasing to Allah and His Messeger (PBUH).
2. SECOND IMPORTANT MATTER:
The Messenger (PBUH) has more rule over an individual than that individual has over his/herself. This means that a person only does those actions which are in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (PBUH).
Therefore, three critical conditions must be fulfilled in order for a deed to be accepted:
a. One must confess his/her belief in Islam (i.e. one must be a Muslim). b. One must have Ikhlaas of the Niyah (i.e. purity of the intention). c. One must do that deed in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (PBUH).
If one of these conditions are not meet, that person’s deed will not benefit him/her in the least. Of course, absence of knowledge is always an exception (eg. a person may make Wudhu but does not know the specific parts of the body that are to be washed; thus, he/she washes those parts which he/she thinks to be significant. His/her Wudhu was not
done in accordance with the Book and the Sunnah; however, he/she did not know the way to make Wudhu according to the Book and the Sunnah; hence, their Wudhu would be accepted for a and b were fulfilled, wa Allahu ‘alam).
These are the conditions which the Salaaf As-Salih (Pious Predecessors) understood with regards to the acceptance and rejection of a deed.
Another implications of the testimony: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).
BELIEF THAT HE (PBUH) WAS SENT TO ALL OF MANKIND AND THE JINN
Verily, Allah, azza wa jall, has said in the Qur’an (what means): “Say (O Muhammad PBUH): O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah – to Whom belongs the dominion of the Heavens and the Earth. La illaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He).
It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger (PBUH), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allah and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf: 158].
The prophet (PBUH) said (what means): “And the Prophets were formerly sent to their people only, whereas I have been sent to all mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Therefore, recognizing that he (PBUH) was sent as a mercy to all of mankind will, Inshallah, help kindle the proper love for him which will be manifested through obedience to his rulings.
FINALITY OF HIS PROPHETHOOD
Indeed, there is no Messenger/Prophet after Muhammd ibnu ‘Abd Allah (PBUH) as Allah, Ta ‘Ala, says in His Book (what means):
“Muhammad (PBUH) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the last (end) of the Prophets. Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.” [Al-Ahzab: 40].
The Prophet (PBUH) has said (what means): “And the line of the Prophets is closed with me.” [Muslim].
Believing that Muhammad (PBUH) is the final Messenger of Allah confirms Allah’s statement (what means): “…This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed my Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…” [Al-Ma’idah:3 (in part)].
Thus, if Islam were not a complete way of life, then this religion would need to be constantly updated. In order to update this religion, there would have to be another Prophet after Muhammad (PBUH). However, this is not so as Allah completed this Diyn and it can never be changed from its true form.
BELIEVING THAT HE (PBUH) HAS BEEN GIVEN TWO (2) RELELATIONS
Al-Hamdulilah, Allah, azza wa jall, has give the Prophet (PBUH) two revelations as understood by the Minhaj of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Juma’ah. These are, of course, the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah. Allah confirms this with His saying (what means):
“Nor does he (Muhammad PBUH) speak of his own desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” [An-Najm: 3-4].
“Indeed, Allah conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad PBUH) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’an) and Al-Hikmah (the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet PBUH – i.e. his legal ways, statements, actions, etc.), while before that they had been in manifest error.” [Al-‘Imran:164].
The Prophet (PBUH) has also said (what means): “I have, indeed, been given the Qur’an and something like it along with it (i.e. his Sunnah).”
Thus, there is no mere choice between following the Sunnah and not following it. It has been sent down as part of revelation; thus, it must be adhered to in full. It is adhered to the way the Prophet (PBUH) explained it and the way the Sahabah understood it. Allah confirms this with His saying (what means): “We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by the permission of Allah.”
“Obey Allah, and the Messenger (PBUH). But if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.” [Al-‘Imran: 31-32].
THE Prophet Mohammd PBUH’S Rights Upon His Followers:
These rights are:
1. We believe in what the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has said.
2. We obey him in what has been commanded and forsake what he has forbidden or discouraged.
3. We worship Allah according to the Shar’iah of His Messenger (PBUH), not by whims and Bid’ah (innovations).
4. We judge ourselves by the Shar’iah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and not by any other law.
5. We love Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) more than our parents, children, all of mankind, indeed our very selves.
Allah SWT (God) has confirmed the above with His statement (what means):
“Say (to them O Muhammad PBUH): If you love Allah, follow me, and Allah will love you, and forgive you your sins; Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. Say: Obey Allah, and the Messenger (PBUH), but if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.”
“And let those who oppose his (Muhammad’s PBUH) command beware, lest a trail befall them (that will lead them to Kuffur) or a painful punishment be inflicted on them.” [An-Nur: 63].
“You have indeed a good example in the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) for whosoever hopes for Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Al-Ahzab: 21].
“It is not for any believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) have decreed a matter, to have the choice in their affair. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) he has gone astray into manifest error.” [Al-Ahzab: 36].
“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad PBUH) judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept (them) fully with submission.”
Thus, we see in this last Ayah that Allah negates that a person can have Imaan unless that person makes the Prophet (PBUH) judge in *all* affairs and that we accept his (PBUH) decisions with submission. This Ayah is indeed serious as Allah swears to this negation with His saying (what means), “But no, by your Lord…”.
The Prophet (PBUH) stressed the importance of obeying and following his Sunnah with his saying (what means):
“All of my people will enter Jennah except those who refuse.” When asked about those who refuse, he said: “He who obeys me will enter Jennah, while he who disobeys me has refused.” [Al-Bukhari].
He (PBUH) also said (what means): “If anyone introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
And: “None of you believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his child, and all of mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
And: “There are qualities for which anyone who is characterized by them will experiece the sweetness of Imaan: he to whom Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) are dearer than all else; he who loves a human being for Allah’s Sake alone; and who has as great an abhorrence of returning to Kuffur (disbelief) after Allah has rescued him from it as he has being cast into the Hell Fire.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Although the Prophet (PBUH) is the best of examples and following his Sunnah is obligatory, we must remember that it is not right to overpraise him (PBUH) as he was not divine, but a man. Some deviant sects of Islam direct their ‘Ibaadah to the Prophet (PBUH); however, this is Shirk Al-Akbar (association in the highest degree) which will not be forgiven unless that person makes sincere Tawbah before his/her death.
A MAN AND NOT DIVINE
Allah says (what means):
“Say (O Muhammad PBUH): I am only a man like you: it is revealed to me that your God is One God: So, let him who hopes for the meeting with his Lord, do righteousness, and not associate anything in the worship of hsi Lord.”
The Prophet (PBUH) said (what means): “Do not overpraise me as the Christians overpraised the son of Mary (i.e. ‘Isa AS).
I am His slave, so say: Allah’s slave and Messenger.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
SENDING Duroud AND SALAAM UPON THE NABEE (PBUH)
This is an action which the believer are commanded to do as Allah says in the Qur’an (what means):
“Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salaat (i.e. Allah mentions the Prophet’s PBUH name in the presence of the angels) upon the Prophet (PBUH).
O you who believe! Send your Salaat and your Salaam upon him (ie. by saying Salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, etc.).” [Al-Ahzab: 56].
In those days before Islam, women were treated like slaves or property. Their personal consent concerning anything related to their well-being was considered unimportant, to such a degree that they were never even treated as a party to a marriage contract.
Women were used for one purpose, and then discarded, Just for the purpose of sex and pleasure. They had no independence, could own no property and were not allowed to inherit. In times of war, women were treated as part of the prize. Simply put, their condition was unspeakable.
In addition, the birth of a daughter in a family was not an occasion for rejoicing, but was regarded with humiliation. The practice of killing female children was uncontrolled.
With the advent of Islam came the verse from the Quran condemning those who practiced female infanticide:
“And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief! He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth? Certainly, evil is their decision.”
And as part of a description of various events on the Day of Judgment, the Quran mentions:
“And when the female (infant) buried alive (as the pagan Arabs used to do)
shall be questioned. For what sin she was killed? (At-Takwir 81:8-9)
Outside Arabia conditions for women were no better. In India, Egypt, and all European countries in the Dark Ages, women were treated worse than slaves. They were not regarded as human beings but as sort of a sub-species between humans and animals.
Allah (SWT) Gave the Arab Women Their Rights
The rights of Muslim women were given to us by Allah (SWT), who is All-Compassionate, All-Merciful, All-Just, All-Unbiased, All-Knowing and Most Wise. These rights, which were granted to women more than 1400 years ago, and were taught by the perfect example of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), were given by the one Who created us and Who alone knows what rights are best for our female natures. Allah (SWT) says in the Quran:
“O You who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at time of marriage) you have given them, unless they commit open illegal sexual intercourse. And live with them honorably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings
through it a great deal of good.” (An-Nisa 4:19)
The most basic right of a woman in Islam is the knowledge and recognition that she never has to ask or demand or fight for her rights which are guaranteed to her by Allah (SWT) Himself.
Rights That Islam Gives to Women
– Human Rights
Islam considers a woman to be equal to a man as a human being and as his partner in this life. Women have been created with a soul of the same nature as man’s. Allah (SWT) says in the Quran:
“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever and All-Watcher over you.” (Al-Nisa 4:1)
And in the words of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW),
“Assuredly, women are the twin halves of men.” (Sahih reported by Abu-Dawud (RA)
Islam does not blame Eve alone for the First Sin. The Quran makes it very clear that both Adam and Eve were tempted, that they both sinned and were both forgiven after their repentance. Allah (SWT) says in the Quran:
“Then Satan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.” So he mislead them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (Allah) said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling-place for you and an enjoyment, – for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e. resurrected).”(Al-A’raf 7:20-25)
In Islamic law a woman is an independent, unique individual in her own right. She has the same responsibilities towards herself, towards Allah (SWT) and towards other human beings as the male, and will be punished or rewarded in the Hereafter without discrimination towards her female gender.
There is no compulsion in religion according to the Quran:
“There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut [anything worshipped other then the Real God (Allah)] and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”
A Muslim woman is not permitted to change her family name to her husband’s name upon marriage. She is always known by her father’s name, as a mark of her own identity. In choosing a marriage partner, her consent to accept or reject any prospective suitor for marriage must be respected. A Muslim woman has the right to seek divorce, if necessary within the laws of Islam.
Muslim women are not forbidden from going out in the community, working, or visiting relatives and female friends, if there is no objection from their guardian/husband and they are covered and behave and speak according to Islamic guidelines and, if necessary, escorted by their Mahram (a close male relative). However, a woman’s home should be the main base that she works from. Allah (SWT) instructed the wife’s of the Prophet (SAW):
“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he is whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honorable manner. And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, and offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins, etc.) from you, O members of the family [of the Prophet (SAW)], and to purify you with a thorough purification.” (Al-Ahzab 33:32-33)
In the words of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW):
“To seek knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim.”
(Declared Authentic By Shaikh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaani)
Muslim here meaning male and female Muslims, as women are the twin halves of men. The Prophet (SAW) also said:
“Whoever follows a way to seek knowledge, Allah will make easy for him a way to paradise.” (Declared Authentic By Shaikh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaani)
A woman in Islam has the right to knowledge and education. Allah (SWT) encourages women to read and keep up the learning process. He also bestows His mercy upon all who seek knowledge, and gives them high status:
“Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing (in prayer) during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord (like one who disbelieves)? Say: “Are those who know equal to those who know not?” It is only men of understanding who will remember (i.e. get a lesson from Allah’s Signs and Verses). (Az-Zumar 39:9)
“O you who believe! When you are told to make room in the assemblies, (spread out and) make room. Allah will give you (ample) room (from His Mercy). And when you are told to rise up (for prayers, Jihad, or for any other good deed), rise up. Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe, and those who have been granted knowledge. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do. (Al-Mujadilah 58:11)
This is referring to religious knowledge, in the first place, and to any other kind of knowledge, in the second place, where one has the intention of benefiting herself, her family and the Islamic society. Additionally, a husband should not forbid his wife from going out of the house to seek basic religious knowledge, unless he is teaching her at home. The Quran advises mankind to pray:
“Then High above all be Allah, the True King. And be not in haste [O Muhammad (SAW)] with the Quran before its revelation is completed to you, and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.” (Ta-Ha 20:114)
The Right to Go to the Mosque
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:
“If someone’s wife asks his permission to go to the mosque, he should not deny it to her.”
Women should be covered Islamically, according to the Muslim woman’s dress requirements (see Her Dress).
At the same time, a woman’s prayer in her home is better, from the standpoint of her household duties and duties as a mother. Also it is better in the sense that it prevents unnecessary mixing with men. The Prophet (SAW) also stated on another occasion:
“But their homes are better for them.” (Reported by Abu Dawud and Ahmed)
Islam Gives Men and Women Equal Rights
In reality, and in Islam, the rights and responsibilities of a woman are equal to those of man, but they are not necessarily identical with them. Equality and sameness are two very different things. I think you’ll agree that, for one thing, women and men are physically very different from one another, although they are equal to each other in other important ways.
In the West, women may be doing the same job that men do, but their wages are often less. The rights of Western women in modern times were not created voluntarily, or out of kindness to the female. The modern Western woman reached her present position by force, and not through natural processes or mutual consent of Divine teachings. She had to force her way, and various circumstances aided her. Shortage of manpower during wars, pressure of economic needs and requirement of industry forced women to leave their homes to work, struggling for their livelihood, to appear equal to men. Whether all women are sincerely pleased with these circumstances, and whether they are happy and satisfied with the results, is a different matter. But the fact remains that whatever rights modern Western women have, they fall short of those of her Muslim counterpart! Islam has given woman what duties her female nature. It gives her full security and protects her against becoming what Western modern women themselves complain against: a “mere sex object.”
The Right to Seek Employment
If you take a look at many societies today, a woman is only valued and considered important if she performs the functions of a man, (while at the same time displaying her feminine attractions to the public). While these women may carry the immense responsibility of bearing and rearing children, you have to admit that they may still be at par with men in nearly every area of life. The result is the present-day confusion concerning sex role differentiation, resulting in very large numbers of divorces and emotionally distraught children.
In Islam, however, the value and importance of women in society and the true measure of their success as human beings, is measured with completely different criteria: their fear of Allah (SWT) and obedience to Him, and fulfillment of the duties He has entrusted them with, particularly that of bearing, rearing and teaching children.
Nevertheless, Islam is a practical religion, and responds to human needs and life situations. Many women need, or wish, to work for various reasons. For example, they may possess a needed skill, such as a teacher or a doctor.
While Islam does not prohibit women working outside the home, it does stipulate that the following restrictions be followed to safeguard the dignity and honor of women and the purity and stability of the Islamic society, (the conduct of women, after all, is the “backbone” of any society):
1. Outside employment should not come before, or seriously interfere with her responsibilities as wife and mother.
2. Her work should not be a source of friction within the family, and the husband’s consent is required in order to eliminate later disagreements. If she is not married, she must have her guardian’s consent.
3. Her appearance, manner and tone of speech and overall behavior should follow Islamic guidelines. These include: restraining her glances in relation to any men near the work place, wearing correct Islamic dress, avoiding men, not walking in a provocative manner, and not using make-up or perfume in public.
4. Her job should not be one which causes moral corruption in society, or involve any prohibited trade or activity, affect her own religion, morals, dignity and good behavior, or subject her to temptations.
5. Her job should not be one which is mixing and associating with men.
6. A woman should try to seek employment in positions which require a woman’s special skills, or which relate to the needs of women and children, such as teaching, nursing other women, midwifery, medicine with specialization’s like pediatric or obstetrics-gynecology.
A Muslim Woman is Required to Dress a Certain Way When She Goes Out in Public
For a Muslim woman, her modest dress is an expression of a universal sisterhood. An Islamic dress also liberates the Muslim woman, and she is then automatically respected for her mind instead of her body. Simply put, she retains her dignity! It is like saying: I am a respectful woman. I am not for every man to look at, touch, or speak to. I am protected, exactly like a precious white pearl which, if touched by everyone, will become black and dirty.
A woman’s modest dress protects society from adultery and other forms of illegal sexual relations that lead to the break up of families and corruption of society.
THE RIGHT OF A MUSLIM WOMAN IS TO BE RESPECTED FOR HER MIND AND FOR BEING HER OWN PERSON
Some people make a great deal of du’aa’ but receive no answer
What is the reason for the delay in response to du’aa’?
Some people make du’aa’ but they do not get any response;
they ask for a long time but do not see it having any effect, so you find the Shaytaan starting to whisper to such people and making them think badly of their Lord.
Praise be to Allaah.
The one to whom that happens should believe that there is a reason and great wisdom behind the delay in the response. Allaah, may He be glorified, is the Sovereign of all and none can put back His bounty or overturn His ruling or object to His giving or His withholding, if He gives by His bounty or withholds by His justice. We are His slaves and He does with us whatever He will.
“And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter)”
How can a slave fall short in honouring his master’s rights and then demand his rights in full?
It is His right to be obeyed and not disobeyed, to be remembered and not forgotten, to be thanked and not to be shown ingratitude. If you look at yourself and how you are carrying out your duties, you would think very little of yourself and you would feel humility and would realize there can be no salvation except by His forgiveness and mercy. So look at yourself as being a slave, for Allaah is the Creator and Controller.
Allaah has great wisdom and He does not give or withhold except for a reason. You may look at something and think that it is good but by His wisdom He does not decree it. A doctor may do things which appear to be painful but they are in the patient’s best interests. And for Allaah is the highest description. (cf. al-Nahl 16:60).
Attainting the thing asked for may cause hardship to the one who is asking. It was narrated from one of the salaf that he used to ask Allaah to let him go out on a military campaign, but a voice called out to him: “If you go on a military campaign you will be taken prisoner, and if you are taken prisoner, you will become a Christian.” Sayd al-Khaatir, 1/109
Ibn al-Qayyim said: Whatever Allaah has decreed for His believing slave is a blessing even if that is in the form of withholding; it is a favour even if that is in the form of a trial, and the calamity decreed by him is fair even if it us painful. Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 4/215.
No one knows how his affairs will end up. He may ask for something which leads to bad consequences, and may even harm him. The Controller knows best what is in his best interests. “and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you” [al-Baqarah 2:216]. One of the meanings of this verse is that we should not wish that the decree of our Lord was different or ask Him for things of which we have no knowledge, for perhaps that may harm us without us knowing. So we should not choose anything different than what our Lord has chosen for us, rather we should ask Him for a good end in what He has chosen for us, for there is nothing more beneficial for us than that.
What Allaah chooses for His slave is better for him that what he chooses for himself. Allaah is more merciful towards His slaves than they themselves or their mothers are. If something happens to them that they dislike, that is better for them than if it did not happen, so His decree is all kindness and mercy. If the slave submits to Allaah and has certain faith that all dominion belongs to Allaah and all things are under His command, and that He is more merciful to him than he is himself, then he will find peace of mind regardless of whether his need is met or not.
See Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 2/215
The response may be delayed because the person himself has done something which is an impediment to receiving a response or a cause of delay. Perhaps there is something haraam in his food, or perhaps there was some negligence in his heart at the time when he made the du’aa’, or perhaps he had committed a sin, as a consequence of which his du’aa’ was not answered. So when the response to the du’aa’ is delayed, this may prompt the person to check on himself and examine how he stands before his Lord, so that he will take stock of himself and repent; if the answer to his prayer came sooner, perhaps he would become heedless and think that he was doing fine, then he would develop a sense of self-admiration that may lead to his doom.
Delay or withholding of a response may be because Allaah wants to delay the reward for him until the Day of Resurrection, or Allaah wants to divert an equivalent evil from him, but he does not realize that.
Whatever the case, the fruits of du’aa’ are guaranteed, even if you do not see the response with your own eyes. So think well of your Lord and say: Perhaps He has answered me in a way that I do not know. It is narrated in a saheeh report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no Muslim who does not offer any du’aa’ in which there is no sin or severing of family ties but Allaah will give him one of three things in return: either He will answer his du’aa’ sooner, or he will store it up for him in the Hereafter, or He will divert an equivalent evil away from him because of it.” They said: “We will say a lot of du’aa’.” He said: “Allaah is more generous.” Narrated by Ahmad, 10749. al-Albaani said in Saheeh al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb: it is hasan saheeh.
In conclusion, there are many reasons why a du’aa’ may not be answered or the answer may be delayed; we must ponder this and not stop making du’aa’, for du’aa’ will always be of benefit.
And Allaah knows best.
Source: Islam Q&A
We use the word du’aa’ (invocation) to refer to two things:
1- Du’aa’ for asking, which means seeking that which will benefit, or asking to ward off that which will cause harm, by asking Allaah for that which will benefit in this world and in the Hereafter, and to ward off that which will cause harm in this world and in the Hereafter,
Such as du’aa’ for forgiveness, mercy, guidance, help, to attain Paradise, to be saved from Hell, for Allaah to grant good things in this world and in the Hereafter and so on.
2- Du’aa’ for worship, which means that the person is worshipping Allaah by any of the types of worship, in the heart or physically or financially, such as fearing Allaah, loving Him, hoping for His mercy, putting one’s trust in Him, praying, fasting, doing Hajj, reading Qur’aan, reciting tasbeeh and dhikr, giving zakaah and charity, jihad for the sake of Allaah, calling people to Allaah, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, and so on.
Everyone who does any of these acts of worship is calling upon Allaah.
Usually when the word du’aa’ appears in verses of the Qur’aan, it refers to both meanings, because they are interconnected. So everyone who asks of Allaah verbally is worshipping Him, because du’aa’ is worship, and every worshipper who prays to Allaah, fasts or does Hajj is doing that hoping for reward from Allaah and to attain Paradise and to be saved from punishment.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Everything in the Qur’aan that enjoins du’aa’ and forbids du’aa’ to or calling upon anyone other than Allaah, and praises those who say du’aa’ or call upon Him, includes the du’aa’ of asking and the du’aa’ of worship. End quote.
Al-Qawaa’id al-Hisaan (no. 51).
One of the two types of du’aa’ may be more apparent than the other in some verses.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said concerning the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors. 56. And do not do mischief on the earth, after it has been set in order, and invoke Him with fear and hope. Surely, Allaah’s Mercy is (ever) near unto the good‑doers” [al-A’raaf 7:55-56]:
These two verses include the etiquette of two types of du’aa’: the du’aa’ of worship and the du’aa’ of asking. Du’aa’ in the Qur’aan may refer to either of these types, or it may refer to both, because they are interconnected. Du’aa’ of asking means seeking that which will benefit the supplicant, and asking to be spared that which will harm him, and for it to be warded off. So he asks for benefit and for harm to be warded off, and that is du’aa’ of asking. And the du’aa’ that is offered with hope and fear is the du’aa’ of worship. Therefore it is known that both types are interconnected. Every du’aa’ of worship implies du’aa’ of asking, and every du’aa’ of asking implies du’aa’ of worship.
Based on this, the words (interpretation of the meaning): “And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor)” [al-Baqarah 2:186] include both types of du’aa’, and it is in terms of both that the verse is to be understood. It was said: I will give to him when he asks of Me, and it was said: I will reward him if he worships Me. Both are interconnected.
This does not come under the heading of using a common word in both of its meanings, or of using a word in a real and metaphorical sense, rather it is using it in its real sense which includes both things.
Think about it, because it is a matter that is of great benefit, but it is rarely paid attention to. Most verses of the Qur’aan point to both meanings and more, and it is of this type.
For example, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم to the disbelievers): My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him”
i.e., because of your du’aa’ to Him. And it was said: (it means) because of His call to you to worship Him.
Based on that, what is meant is both types of du’aa’, of which is the du’aa’ of worship is more apparent, i.e., He would not have paid attention to you were it not that you put your hope in Him. Worship of Him implies asking of Him, so both types are included.
And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And your Lord said: Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)”
The word du’aa’ here includes both types, although du’aa’ of worship is more apparent, hence it is followed by the words (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, those who scorn My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islamic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”. So the word du’aa’ in this verse may be interpreted in both senses.
Al-Tirmidhi narrated that al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say on the minbar: “Du’aa’ is worship.” Then he recited the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “And your Lord said: Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)…”. Al-Tirmidhi said: a saheeh hasan hadeeth.
With regard to the verses (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, those on whom you call besides Allaah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose…”
“They (all those who worship others than Allaah) invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allaah) …”
“And those whom they used to invoke before (in this world) shall disappear from them…”
everything that is mentioned in them is the du’aa’ or invocation of the mushrikeen to their idols. What is meant is the du’aa’ of worship which includes the du’aa’ of asking, although the meaning of du’aa’ of worship is more apparent.
The words (interpretation of the meaning): “so invoke Him making your worship pure for Him Alone (by worshipping Him Alone, and none else” [Ghaafir 40:65] refer to the du’aa’ of worship. What is meant is: Worship Him alone and make your worship sincerely for Him alone, and do not worship anyone else along with Him.
With regard to the words of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “ ‘Verily, my Lord is indeed the All‑Hearer of invocations’” [Ibraaheem 14:39], what is meant by hearing here is hearing in a specific sense, which is the hearing of response and acceptance, not hearing in the general sense, because Allaah hears all that can be heard. As that is the case, du’aa’ here means the du’aa’ of worship and the du’aa’ of requesting, and the Lord’s hearing of it means that He rewards the praise and answers the request, so He hears both.
With regard to the words of Zakariya (peace be upon him) in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “ ‘and I have never been unblest in my invocation to You, O my Lord’” [Maryam 19:4], it was said that what is meant is the du’aa’ of asking, meaning: You always answered me and never rejected me or deprived me. So he is seeking to draw closer to Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, by means of His previous answers and kindness. This is clear in this case.
With regard to the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): Invoke Allaah or invoke the Most Gracious (Allaah)…”
The well known view is that this is the du’aa’ of asking, and this is the reason for revelation. They said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to call upon his Lord, sometimes saying Ya Allaah and sometimes saying Ya Rahmaan, so the mushrikeen thought that he was calling upon two gods, so Allaah revealed this verse.
With regard to the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, We used to invoke Him (Alone and none else) before. Verily, He is Al‑Barr (the Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous), the Most Merciful” [al-Toor 52:28], this is the du’aa’ of worship which includes asking with hope and fear. What it means is: we used to devote our worship sincerely to Him alone, and thus they deserved that Allaah should save them from the punishment of Hell, not just because of asking, which is something that is shared in common between those who are saved and those who are not, because everyone who is in heaven and on earth asks for that. “never shall we call upon any ilaah (god) other than Him” [al-Kahf 18:14] i.e., we will never worship anyone other than Him. Similarly Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Will you call upon Ba‘l (a well-known idol of his nation whom they used to worship) and forsake the Best of creators?” [al-Saffaat 37:125].
With regard to the words (interpretation of the meaning): “And it will be said (to them): ‘Call upon your (so‑called) partners (of Allaah)’, and they will call upon them…” [al-Qasas 28:64], this is du’aa’ of asking. Allaah will rebuke and humiliate them on the Day of Resurrection, by showing them that their partners (whom they ascribed to Allaah) will not answer their du’aa’s or supplications. But it does not mean worship them. It is similar to the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And (remember) the Day He will say: ‘Call those (so‑called) partners of Mine whom you pretended.’ Then they will cry unto them, but they will not answer them” [al-Kahf 18:52]. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Taymiyah (15/10-14).
The Qur’an (Arabic: القرآن al-qur’ān, literally “the recitation”; also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran or Al-Qur’ān) is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, and consider the original Arabic text to be the final revelation of God. Islam holds that the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad by the angel Gibraele (Gabriel) over a period of 23 years. Muslims regard the Qur’an as the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam, regarded in Islam as the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham),the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (Psalms), and the Injeel (Gospel).The aforementioned books are not explicitly included in the Qur’an, but are recognized therein.The Qur’an also refers to many events from Jewish and Christian scriptures, some of which are retold in comparatively distinctive ways from the Bible and the Torah, while obliquely referring to other events described explicitly in those texts.
The Qur’an itself expresses that it is the book of guidance. Therefore it rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events, the text instead typically placing emphasis on the moral significance of an event rather than its narrative sequence. It does not describe natural facts in a scientific manner but teaches that natural and supernatural events are signs of God.
The Qur’an was written down by Muhammad’s companions while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized in the time of Uthman, the third caliph. The Qur’an in its actual form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in Western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance and that historically controversy over the content of the Qur’an has never become a main point. Therefore all Muslims, Sunni or Shia use the same Qur’an.
The month of Rajab is one of the sacred months and there are many important events in Islamic history that took place in the month of Rajab, such as the Night Journey and Ascension (Israa’ and Mi`raj), the Battle of Tabuk, and the liberation of Al-Aqsa Mosque from the crusaders at the hands of Salah Ad-Din Al-Ayyubi.
The merit of Rajab is like the merit of the rest of the other sacred months. Allah Almighty says: (Lo! the number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah’s ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them) (At-Tawbah 9: 36).
The names of these sacred months are mentioned in an authentic hadith said by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in the Farewell Pilgrimage. According to this hadith, the sacred months are four, three in succession—that is, Dhul-Qi`dah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Muharram—and the fourth is Rajab, which comes between Jumada Thani and Sha`ban.
But what about fasting in the month of Rajab, is it recommended and are there any authentic hadiths which indicate that fasting in Rajab has a special virtue or reward?
Let’s see what some scholars view about this:
Sheikh `Atiyyah Saqr, former head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee
I would like to stress the fact that observing voluntary fasting during the sacred months or Al-Ashhur Al-Hurum, including the month of Rajab, is recommended or mandub. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have instructed his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) to observe voluntary fasting in Al-Ashhur Al-Hurum.
He (peace and blessings be upon him) used to urge his Companions to fast three days of every month. Thus, fasting during the month of Rajab is recommended but there is no authentic hadith that indicates that fasting certain days of Rajab, for example the first day, entails a special reward.
Ibn Hajar also quoted Abu Bakr At-Tartushi as saying in Al-Bida` wa Al-Hawadith, “It is not recommended to observe fasting in Rajab if this is done out of one of three intentions, one of which is to do so out of believing that its fasting is obligatory like the fasting of Ramadan, or it is a regular act of Sunnah, or that its fasting is more rewarded and praiseworthy than fasting in the other months. If anything of the kind had been true, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would have clarified it. According to Ibn Dihyah, fasting in general is a good act, but it should not be observed in Rajab out of believing that it entails special rewards then. `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) would not recommend fasting in Rajab out of this belief.”
The bottom line:
Fasting during the month of Rajab is recommended but there is no authentic hadith that indicates that fasting certain days of Rajab entails a special reward.
Praise be to Allaah, the One, the Subduer, and blessings and peace be upon the Chosen Prophet and upon his good and pure family and companions.
Praise be to Allaah Who says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses” [al-Qasas 28:68]. The attribute of choosing or selecting is indicative of His Lordship and Oneness, and of the perfection of His Wisdom, Knowledge and Power.
One aspect of His choosing and preferring is the fact that He has chosen some days and months and given them preference over others. Among the months, Allaah has chosen four which He has made sacred, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein…” [al-Tawbah 9:36]
These months are calculated according to the movements of the moon, not the movements of the sun, as the kuffaar do.
The Sacred Months are mentioned by implication in the Qur’aan, but their names are not given. Their names are mentioned in the Sunnah:
It was reported from Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave his Farewell Sermon and said: “Time has completed its cycle and is as it was on the Day when Allaah created the heavens and the earth. The year is twelve months, of which four are sacred, three consecutive months – Dhoo’l-Qa’dah, Dhoo’l-Hijjah and Muharram – and the Rajab of Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, no. 1741, in [Kitaab] al-Hajj, al-Khutbah Ayaam Mina; and by Muslim, no. 1679, in [Kitaab] al-Qisaamah, Baab Tahreem al-Dimaa’).
It was called Rajab of Mudar because [the tribe of] Mudar did not tamper with its timing, unlike the rest of the Arabs, who used to tamper with the months and change their order depending on whether they were in a state of war or not. This was the postponing referred to in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“The postponing (of a Sacred Month) is indeed an addition to disbelief: thereby the disbelievers are led astray, for they make it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allaah, and make such forbidden ones lawful.” [al-Tawbah 9:37]
It was also said that the reason why it was attributed to Mudar was because they venerated it and respected it so much, so it was attributed to them.
The reason why it is so called.
Ibn Faaris said in Mu’jam Maqaayees al-Lughah (p. 445):
The letters Ra’, jeem and ba’ form a root which indicates supporting and strengthening something with another thing. … Hence the phrase “Rajabtu’l-shay’” means I venerated it… It was called Rajab because they used to venerate it, and it is also venerated in Sharee’ah.
The people of the Jaahiliyyah used to call Rajab Munassil al-Asinnah [the one that causes the sharp heads of weapons to be taken off], as it was reported that Abu Rajaa’ al-‘Ataaridi said:
We would a rock, then if we found a better rock we would throw the first one aside and adopt the other. If we could not find a rock, we would make a pile of dirt, then we would bring a ewe and milk it over the pile of dirt, then we would do tawaaf around it. When the month of Rajab came, we would say Munassil al-Asinnah [the one that causes the sharp heads of weapons to be taken off], and we would not leave any spear or arrow that had an iron piece in it but we would take the metal head off and put it aside during the month of Rajab. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari).
Al-Bayhaqi said: the people of the jaahiliyyah used to venerate these sacred months, especially the month of Rajab, and they would not fight during this month.
Rajab is a sacred month
The Sacred months have a special status, which applies also to Rajab because it is one of these sacred months. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the Symbols of Allaah, nor of the Sacred Month…” [al-Maa’idah 5:2]
This means: do not violate their sanctity which Allaah has commanded you to respect and forbidden you to violate, for this prohibition includes both vile deeds and vile beliefs.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“so wrong not yourselves therein…” [al-Tawbah 9:36] meaning, in the Sacred Months. The pronoun here [translated here as “therein”] refers to these four sacred months, as stated by the Imaam of the Mufassireen, Ibn Jareer al-Tabari (may Allaah have mercy on him).
So we should pay attention to the sanctity of these four months, because Allaah has singled them out for a special status and has forbidden us to commit sins out of respect for their sanctity, for sins committed at this time are even worse, because of the sanctity of the time which Allaah has made sacred. Hence in the aayah quoted above, Allaah has forbidden us to wrong ourselves even though this – i.e., wronging ourselves, which includes committing sins – is forbidden during all the months of the year.
Fighting during the sacred months
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They ask you concerning fighting in the sacred months. Say: fighting therein is a great (transgression)…” [al-Baqarah 2:217]
The majority of scholars state that (the prohibition of) fighting in the sacred months is abrogated by the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then when the sacred months have passed, then kill the Mushrikeen wherever you find them…” [al-Tawbah 9:5], and other aayat and reports which are general in application and which include commands to fight them.
Others say: it is not permissible to initiate fighting during the sacred months, but it is permissible to continue and conclude fighting, if it started at a different time. The fighting of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) against the people of al-Taa’if is interpreted in this way, because the fighting had begun at Hunayn in Shawwaal.
The above does not apply to fighting in self-defence. If the enemy attacks the Muslim lands, it is obligatory for the inhabitants to defend themselves, whether that happens during a sacred month or not.
Al-‘Ateerah (a kind of sacrifice)
During the Jaahiliyyah, the Arabs used to slaughter a sacrifice during Rajab as an act of worship towards their idols.
When Islam came, teaching that sacrifices were to be offered only to Allaah, this deed of the Jaahiliyyah was abolished. The fuqaha’ differed as to the rulings on offering sacrifices during Rajab. The majority of Hanafis, Maalikis and Hanbalis stated that the sacrifice of al-‘Ateerah was abrogated. Their evidence was the hadeeth, “There is no Fir’ and no ‘Ateerah”, narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim from Abu Hurayrah.
The Shaafa’is said that al-‘Ateerah had not been abrogated, and they regarded it as mustahabb (recommended). This was also the view of Ibn Seereen.
Ibn Hajar said: this is supported by the hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood, al-Nisaa’i, and Ibn Maajah, and classed as saheeh by al-Haakim and Ibn al-Mundhir, from Nubayshah, who said:
A man called out to the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): We used to offer the sacrifice of al-‘Ateerah during the Jaahiliyyah in the month of Rajab. What do you command us to do? He said, Offer sacrifices, no matter which month is it…
Ibn Hajar said: the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not abolish it in principle, but he abolished the idea of making this sacrifice especially in Rajab.
Fasting in Rajab
There is no saheeh report from the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from the Sahaabah to indicate that there is any particular virtue in fasting during Rajab.
The fasting that is prescribed in Rajab is the same as that prescribed in other months, namely fasting on Mondays and Thursdays, and the three days of al-Beed, fasting alternate days, and fasting Sirar al-Shahr. Some of the scholars said that Sirar al-Shahr refers to the beginning of the month; others said that it refers to the middle or end of the month. ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) used to forbid fasting in Rajab because it involved resemblance to the Jaahiliyyah. It was reported that Kharashah ibn al-Harr said: I saw ‘Umar smacking the hands of those who fasted in Rajab until they reached out for food, and he was saying, This is a month which was venerated in the Jaahiliyyah. (al-Irwaa’, 957; al-Albaani said: it is saheeh).
Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said: the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not fast for three consecutive months (i.e., Rajab, Sha’baan and Ramadaan) as some people do, and he never fasted Rajab at all, nor did he encourage people to fast this month.
Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said in Tabayyun al-‘Ajab bimaa wurida fi Fadl Rajab:
No saheeh hadeeth that may be used as evidence has been narrated concerning the virtues of the month of Rajab or fasting this month or fasting in any specific part of it, or observing Qiyaam al-Layl specifically during this month. Imaam Abu Ismaa’eel al-Harawi al-Haafiz has already stated this before me, and we have narrated this from others also.
In Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah it states: with regard to fasting specifically in Rajab, we do not know of any basis in Sharee’ah for doing that.
‘Umrah in Rajab
The ahaadeeth indicate that the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not do ‘Umrah during Rajab, as it was narrated that Mujaahid said: ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr and I entered the mosque, and there was ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar sitting near the room of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). He was asked, “How many times did the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) do ‘Umrah?” He said, “Four times, and one of them was in Rajab.” We did not want to argue with him. We could hear ‘Aa’ishah Umm al-Mu’mineen brushing her teeth (i.e., the sound of the miswaak) in her room. ‘Urwah said, “O Mother of the Believers, did you not hear what Abu ‘Abd al-Rahmaan is saying?” She said, “What is he saying?” He said, “He is saying that the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did ‘Umrah four times, one of them in Rajab.” She said, “May Allaah have mercy on Abu ‘Abd al-Rahmaan, [the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] never did ‘Umrah but he witnesses it (i.e., he was present with him), and he never did ‘Umrah during Rajab.” (Agreed upon).
It was reported by Muslim that Ibn ‘Umar heard this and did not say yes or no. Al-Nawawi said: the fact that Ibn ‘Umar remained silent when ‘Aa’ishah denied what he said indicates that he was confused, or had forgotten, or was uncertain. Hence it is an innovated bid’ah to single out Rajab for making ‘Umrah and to believe that doing ‘Umrah in Rajab has a specific virtue. Nothing to that effect has been narrated, besides the fact that the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is not reported to have made ‘Umrah during Rajab at all.
Shaykh ‘Ali ibn Ibraaheem al-‘Attaar (d. 724 AH) said:
One of the things that I have heard about the people of Makkah – may Allaah increase it in honour – is that they do ‘Umrah frequently during Rajab. This is something for which I know of no basis, all I know is that it was reported in the hadeeth that the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “ ‘Umrah in Ramadaan is equivalent to Hajj.”
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Fataawaa:
As for singling out some of the days of Rajab for any kind of good deed, ziyaarah (visiting the House of Allaah, the Ka’bah) or anything else, there is no basis for this, because Imaam Abu Shaamah stated in his book al-Bida’ wa’l-Hawaadith: specifying acts of worship at times that were not specified by sharee’ah is wrong; no time is to be regarded as better than any other except in cases where the sharee’ah gave preference to a certain act of worship at a certain time, or stated that any good deed done at this time is better than good deeds done at other times. Hence the scholars denounced the practice of singling out the month of Rajab for doing ‘Umrah frequently.
But if a person goes for ‘Umrah during Rajab without believing that this has any particular virtue and because it is just a coincidence that it is easier for him to go at this time, then there is nothing wrong with that.
Bid’ah and innovations in the month of Rajab
Innovation in religion is one of the serious matters which go against the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah. The Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not die until after the religion had been perfected. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“… This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…” [al-Maa’idah 5:3]
It was reported that ‘Aa’isha (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours which is not a part of it, will have it rejected.” (Agreed upon).
According to a report narrated by Muslim: “Whoever does an action which is not a part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”
Some people have innovated a number of practices in Rajab, including the following:
– Salaat al-Raghaa’ib. This prayer became widespread after the first and best centuries, especially in the fourth century AH. Some liars fabricated this prayer, which is done on the first night of Rajab. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Salaat al-Raghaa’ib is bid’ah according to the consensus of the scholars of religion, such as Maalik, al-Shaafa’i, Abu Haneefah, al-Thawri, al-‘Oozaa’i, al-Layth and others . The hadeeth that is narrated concerning it is a lie according to the consensus of the scholars who have knowledge of hadeeth.
– It was reported that major events happened in the month of Rajab, but none of these reports are true. It was reported that the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was born on the first night of Rajab, and that he received his Mission on the twenty-seventh, or twenty-fifth of this month. None of this is correct. It was reported with an isnaad that is not saheeh from al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad that the Prophet’s Night Journey (al-Israa’) took place on the twenty-seventh of Rajab. This was denied by Ibraaheem al-Harbi and others. One of the innovations that take place during this month is the recitation of the story of the Mi’raaj, and celebrations to commemorate it on the twenty-seventh of Rajab, or singling out this night to perform extra acts of worship such as Qiyaam al-Layl or fasting during the day, or rejoicing and celebrating. Some celebrations are accompanied by haraam things such as mixing of men and women, singing and music, all of which are not permitted on the two Eids which are prescribed in Islam, let alone innovated celebrations. Add to that the fact that there is no proof that the Israa’ and Mi’raaj happened on this date. Even if it were proven, that is no excuse for holding celebrations on this date, because nothing of the kind has been reported from the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, or from any of the Salaf (early generations) of this Ummah. If it were a good thing, they would surely have done it before us. May Allaah help us.
– Salaat Umm Dawood halfway through Rajab.
– The du’aa’s which are recited specifically during Rajab are all fabrications and innovations.
– Visiting graves specifically in Rajab is bid’ah, because graves are to be visited at any time of the year.
We ask Allaah to make us of those who venerate the things that He has made sacred and adhere to the Sunnah of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) outwardly and inwardly, for He is the One Whom we should ask and He is Able to do that. And the close of our request is: praise be to Allaah, the Lord of ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists).
Should we offer the eclipse prayer (salaat al-kusoof) based on the announcements of astronomers published in the newspaper? If the eclipse takes place in another country should we pray the eclipse prayer or is it necessary to see the eclipse with the naked eye?
>>> The eclipse prayer is prescribed when one sees an eclipse, not when one hears news of an eclipse from the astronomers. It should also be noted that it is not prescribed for the people who live in a country where the eclipse is not happening to offer the prayer <<<
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allaah and they do not become eclipsed for the death or birth of anyone. But Allaah sends them to make His slaves fear (Him), so if you see that, then pray and make du’aa’ until it is over.” [Bukhari, Book 18 #150]
According to another version he said: “So if you see that, then hasten to remember Allaah and call upon Him and seek His forgiveness.” [Bukhari, Book 18 #156]
So he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) connected the command to pray, make du’aa’, remember Allaah and pray for forgiveness to actual sighting of the eclipse and not to the reports of the astronomers.
In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was bestowed from on high as a guidance unto man and a self-evident proof of that guidance, and as the standard to discern true from false.1
The fast of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam, and it is one of the greatest of the marks and observances of Islam. There are many purposes and instances of wisdom in the fast of Ramadan which look to both God Almighty’s dominicality, and to man’s social life, his personal life and the training of his instinctual soul, and to his gratitude for Divine bounties. One of the many instances of wisdom in fasting from the point of view of God Almighty’s dominicality is as follows: God Almighty created the face of the earth in the form of a table laden with bounties, and arranged on the table every sort of bounty in a form of From whence he does not expect,2 in this way stating the perfection of His dominicality and His mercifulness and compassionateness. Human beings are unable to discern clearly the reality of this situation while in the sphere of causes, under the veil of heedlessness, and they sometimes forget it. However, during the month of Ramadan, the people of belief suddenly become like a well drawn-up army. As sunset approaches, they display a worshipful attitude as though, having been invited to the Pre-Eternal Monarch’s banquet, they are awaiting the command of “Fall to and help yourselves!” They are responding to that compassionate, illustrious, and universal mercy with comprehensive, exalted, and orderly worship. Do you think those who do not participate in such elevated worship and noble bounties are worthy to be called human beings?
One of the many instances of wisdom in the fast of the blessed month of Ramadan with respect to thankfulness for God Almighty’s bounties is as follows: As is stated in the First Word, a price is required for the foods a tray-bearer brings from a royal kitchen. But, to give a tip to the tray-bearer, and to suppose those priceless bounties to be valueless and not to recognize the one who bestowed them would be the greatest foolishness. God Almighty has spread innumerable sorts of bounties over the face of the earth for mankind, in return for which He wishes thanks, as the price of those bounties. The apparent causes and possessors of the bounties are like tray-bearers. We pay a certain price to them and are indebted to them, and even though they do not merit it, are over-respectful and grateful to them. Whereas the True Bestower of Bounties is infinitely more deserving of thanks than those causes which are merely the means for the bounty. To thank Him, then, is to recognize that the bounties come directly from Him; it is to appreciate their worth and to perceive one’s own need for them. Fasting in Ramadan, then, is the key to a true, sincere, extensive, and universal thankfulness. For at other times of the year, most of those who are not in difficult circumstances do not realize the value of many bounties since they do not experience real hunger. Those whose stomachs are full and especially if they are rich, do not understand the degree of bounty there is in a piece of dry bread. But when it is time to break the fast, the sense of taste testifies that the dry bread is a most valuable Divine bounty in the eyes of a believer. During Ramadan, everyone from the monarch to the destitute, manifests a sort of gratitude through understanding the value of those bounties. Furthermore, since eating is prohibited during the day, they will say: “Those bounties do not belong to me. I am not free to eat them, for they are another’s property and gift. I await his command.” They will recognize the bounty to be bounty and so will be giving thanks. Thus, fasting in this way is in many respects like a key to gratitude; gratitude being man’s fundamental duty.
One of the many instances of wisdom in fasting from the point of view ofman’s social life is as follows: Human beings have been created differently with regard to their livelihoods. As a consequence of the difference, God Almighty invites the rich to assist the poor, so that through the hunger experienced in fasting, the rich can truly understand the pains and hunger which the poor suffer. If there was no fasting, there would be many self-indulgent rich unable to perceive just how grievous is hunger and poverty and how needy of compassion are those who suffer them. Compassion for one’s fellow men is an essential of true thankfulness. Whoever a person is, there will always be someone poorer than himself in some respect. He is enjoined to be compassionate towards that person. If he was not himself compelled to suffer hunger, he would be unable give the person—by means of compassion—the help and assistance which he is obliged to offer. And even if he was able, it would be deficient, for he would not have truly experienced the state of hunger himself.
One instance of wisdom in fasting in Ramadan with respect to training the instinctual soul is as follows: The instinctual soul wants to be free and independent, and considers itself to be thus. According to the dictates of its nature, it even desires an imaginary dominicality and to act as it pleases. It does not want to admit that it is being sustained and trained through innumerable bounties. Especially if it possesses wealth and power in this world, and if heedlessness also encourages it, it will devour God’s bounties like a usurping, thieving animal. Thus, in the month of Ramadan, the instinctual soul of everyone, from the richest to the poorest, may understand that it does not own itself, but is totally owned; that it is not free, but is a slave. It understands that if it receives no command, it is unable to do the simplest and easiest thing, it cannot even stretch out its hand towards water. Its imaginary dominicality is therefore shattered; it performs its worship and begins to offer thanks, its true duty.
One of the many instances of wisdom in fasting in Ramadan from the point of view of improving the conduct of the instinctual soul and giving up its rebellious habits is as follows: The human soul forgets itself through heedlessness. It cannot see the utter powerlessness, want, and deficiency within itself and it does not wish to see them. And it does not think of just how weak it is, and how subject to transience and to disasters, nor of the fact that it consists merely of flesh and bones, which quickly decline and are dispersed. Simply, it assaults the world as though it possessed a body made of steel and imagined itself to be undying and eternal. It hurls itself onto the world with intense greed and voracity and passionate attachment and love. It is captivated by anything that gives its pleasure or that benefits it. Moreover, it forgets its Creator Who sustains it with perfect compassion, and it does not think of the results of its life and its life in the hereafter. Indeed, it wallows in dissipation and misconduct. However, fasting in the month of Ramadan awakens even the most heedless and obstinate to their weakness, impotence, and want. By means of hunger, they think of their stomachs; they understand the need therein. They realize how unsound are their weak bodies, and perceive how needy they are for kindness and compassion. So they abandon the soul’s pharaoh-like despotism, and through recognizing their utter impotence and want, perceive a desire to take refuge at the Divine Court. And they prepare themselves to knock at the door of mercy with the hands of thankfulness. So long as heedlessness has not destroyed their hearts, that is.
One of the many instances of wisdom in fasting in Ramadan from the point of view of the revelation of the All-Wise Qur’an, and with respect to the fact that the month of Ramadan was the most important time in its revelation, is as follows: Since the All-Wise Qur’an was revealed in the month of Ramadan, to shun the lower demands of the soul and trivialities and to resemble the angelic state by abstaining from food and drink in order to greet that heavenly address in the best manner, is to attain to a holy state. And to read and listen to the Qur’an as though it was just revealed, to listen to the Divine address in it as if it was being revealed that very instant, to listen to that address as though hearing it from God’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace), indeed, from the Angel Gabriel, or from the Pre-Eternal Speaker Himself, is to attain to that same holy state. To act in this way is to act as an interpreter and to cause others to listen to it and in some degree to demonstrate the wisdom in the Qur’an’s revelation. Indeed, it is as if the world of Islam becomes a mosque during the month of Ramadan. In every corner of that mighty mosque millions of those who know the whole Qur’an by heart cause the dwellers on the earth to hear the heavenly address. Each Ramadan displays the verse It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was bestowed from on high in luminous shining manner. It proves that Ramadan is the month of the Qur’an. Some of the members of the vast congregation listen to the reciters with reverence, while others read it themselves. Following the appetites of the base instinctual soul while in a sacred mosque that is such, and quitting that luminous condition through eating and drinking, is truly loathsome and makes such a person the target of the aversion and disgust of the congregation in the mosque. In the same way, people who oppose those who fast during Ramadan are to the same extent the target of the aversion and disgust of the whole world of Islam.
One of the many instances of wisdom in the fast of Ramadan with respect to mankind’s gain and profit, who comes to this world in order to cultivate and trade for the hereafter, is as follows: The reward for actions in the month of Ramadan is a thousandfold. According to Hadith, each word of the All-Wise Qur’an has ten merits; each is counted as ten merits and will yield ten fruits in Paradise. While during Ramadan, each word bears not ten fruits but a thousand, and verses like Ayat al-Kursi3 thousands for each word, and on Fridays in Ramadan it is even more. And on the Night of Power, each word is counted as thirty thousand merits. Indeed, the All-Wise Qur’an, each of whose words yield thirty thousand eternal fruits, is like a luminous Tree of Tuba that gains for believers in Ramadan millions of those eternal fruits. So, come and look at this sacred, eternal profitable trade, then consider it and understand the infinite loss of those who do not appreciate the value of those words. To put it simply, the month of Ramadan is an extremely profitable display and market for the trade of the hereafter. It is an extremely fertile piece of land for the crops of the hereafter. For the growth and flourishing of actions it is like April showers in the spring. It is like a brilliant holy festival for the parade of mankind’s worship in the face of the sovereignty of Divine dominicality. Since it is thus, mankind has been charged with fasting in order not to heedlessly indulge the animal needs of the instinctual soul like eating and drinking, nor to indulge the appetites lustfully and in trivialities. For, by temporarily rising above animality and quitting the calls of this world, man approaches the angelic state and enters upon the trade of the hereafter. And by fasting, he approaches the state of the hereafter and that of a spirit appearing in bodily form. It is as if man then becomes a sort of mirror reflecting the Eternally Besought One. Indeed, the month of Ramadan comprises and gains a permanent and eternal life in this fleeting world and brief transient life. Certainly, a single Ramadan can produce fruits equal to that of a lifetime of eighty years. The fact that, according to the Qur’an, the Night of Power is more auspicious than a thousand months is a decisive proof of this. For example, a monarch may declare certain days to be festivals during his reign, or perhaps once a year. Either on his accession to the throne or on some other days which reflect a glittering manifestation of his sovereignty. On those days, he favours his subjects, not within the general sphere of the law, but with his special bounties and favours, with his presence without veil and his wondrous activities. And he favours with his especial regard and attention those of his nation who are completely loyal and worthy . In the same way, the All-Glorious Monarch of eighteen thousand worlds, Who is the Sovereign of Pre-Eternity and Post-Eternity, revealed in Ramadan the illustrious decree of the All-Wise Qur’an, which looks to the eighteen thousand worlds. It is a requirement of wisdom, then, that Ramadan should be like special Divine festival, a dominical display, and a spiritual gathering. Since Ramadan is such festival, God has commanded man to fast, in order to disengage him to a degree from base and animal activities. The most excellent fasting is to make the human senses and organs, like the eyes, ears, heart, and thoughts, fast together with the stomach. That is, to withdraw them from all unlawful things and from trivia, and to urge each of them to their particular worship. For example, to ban the tongue from lying, back-biting, and obscene language and to make it fast. And to busy it with activities like reciting the Qur’an, praying, glorifying God’s Names, asking for God’s blessings on the Prophet Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and seeking forgiveness for sins. And for example, to prevent the eyes looking at members of the opposite sex outside the stipulated degrees of kinship, and the ears from hearing harmful things, and to use the eyes to take lessons and the ears to listen to the truth and to the Qur’an, is to make other organs fast too. As a matter of fact, since the stomach is the largest factory, if it has an enforced holiday from work through fasting, the other small workshops will be made to follow it easily.
One of the many instances of wisdom in Ramadan from the point of view of man’s personal life is as follows: It is a healing physical and spiritual diet of the most important kind. When man’s instinctual soul eats and drinks just as it pleases, it is both harmful for man’s physical life from the medical point of view, and when it hurls itself on everything it encounters without considering whether it is licit or illicit, it quite simply poisons his spiritual life. Further, it is difficult for such a soul to obey the heart and the spirit. It wilfully takes the reins into its own hands, and then man cannot ride it, it rather rides man. But by means of fasting in Ramadan, it becomes accustomed to a sort of diet. It tries to discipline itself and learns to listen to commands. Furthermore, it will not be attracting illness to that miserable, weak stomach by cramming it with food before the previous consignment has been digested. And by abandoning even licit actions as it is commanded, it will acquire the ability to listen to the commands of the Shari‘a and the reason, and so to avoid illicit actions. It will try not to destroy his spiritual life. Moreover, the great majority of mankind frequently suffer from hunger. Man, therefore, needs hunger and discipline, which are training for patience and endurance. Fasting in Ramadan is patient endurance of a period of hunger that continues for fifteen hours, or for twenty-four if the pre-dawn meal is not eaten, and it is a discipline and a training. That is to say, fasting is also a cure for impatience and lack of endurance, which double man’s afflictions. Futhermore, the factory of the stomach has many workers. And many of the human organs are connected to it. If the instinctual soul does not have a rest from activity during the day for a month, it makes the factory’s workers and those organs forget their particular duties. It makes them busy with itself so that they remain under its tyranny. Also, it confuses the rest of the organs in the human body with the clangour and steam of the factory’s machinery. It continuously attracts their attention to itself, making them temporarily forget their exalted duties. It is because of this that for centuries those closest to God have accustomed themselves to discipline and to eating and drinking little in order to be perfected. However, through fasting in Ramadan the factory’s workers understand that they were not created for the factory only. While the rest of the organs, instead of delighting in the lowly amusements of the factory, take pleasure in angelic and spiritual amusements, and fix their gazes on them. It is for this reason that in Ramadan the believers experience enlightenment, fruitfulness, and spiritual joys which differ according to their degrees. Their subtle faculties, such as the heart, spirit, and intellect, make great progress and advancement in that blessed month by means of fasting. They laugh with innocent joy inspite of the stomach’s weeping.
One of the instances of wisdom in fasting in Ramadan with regard toshattering the instinctual soul’s imaginary dominicality and making known its worship through pointing out its impotence is as follows: The instinctual soul does not want to recognize its Sustainer; it wants its own lordship, like Pharaoh. However much torment it suffers, that character remains in it. It is however destroyed through hunger. And so, fasting in Ramadan strikes direct blows at the soul’s pharaoh-like front, shattering it. It demonstrates its impotence, weakness, and want. It makes it realize that it is a slave. Among the narrations of Hadith is the following: “God Almighty said to the instinctual soul: ‘What am I and what are you?’ The soul replied: ‘I am myself and You are Yourself.’ So He punished it and cast it into Hell, then asked it again. Again it replied: ‘I am myself and You are Yourself.’ However He punished it, it did not give up its egoism. Finally He punished it with hunger. That is, He left it hungry. Then again He asked it: ‘Who am I and who are you?’ And the soul replied: ‘You are my Compassionate Sustainer and I am your impotent slave.’” O God! Grant blessings and peace to our master Muhammad, that will be pleasing to You and fulfilment of his truth to the number of the merits of the words of the Qur’an in the month of Ramadan, and to his Family and Companions, and grant them peace. Limitless in His glory is your Sustainer, the Lord of Almightiness, [exalted] above anything that men may devise by way of definition! * And peace be upon all His message-bearers. * And all praise is due to God alone, the Sustainer of All the Worlds!4
2: 185. 2. Qur’an, 65:3.
The Qur’an (“Qor-Ann”) is a Message from Allah (swt) to humanity. It was transmitted to us in a chain starting from the Almighty Himself (swt) to the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad (saw). This message was given to the Prophet (saw) in pieces over a period spanning approximately 23 years (610 CE to 632 CE). The Prophet (saw) was 40 years old when the Qur’an began to be revealed to him, and he was 63 when the revelation was completed. The language of the original message was Arabic, but it has been translated into many other languages.
The Qur’an is one of the two sources which form the basis of Islam. The second source is the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). What makes the Qur’an different from the Sunnah is primarily its form. Unlike the Sunnah, the Qur’an is literally the Word of Allah (swt), whereas the Sunnah was inspired by Allah but the wording and actions are the Prophet’s (saw). The Qur’an has not been expressed using any human’s words. Its wording is letter for letter fixed by no one but Allah.
Prophet Muhammad (saw) was the final Messenger of Allah to humanity, and therefore the Qur’an is the last Message which Allah (swt) has sent to us. Its predecessors such as the Torah, Psalms, and Gospels have all been superseded. It is an obligation – and blessing – for all who hear of the Qur’an and Islam to investigate it and evaluate it for themselves. Allah (swt) has guaranteed that He will protect the Qur’an from human tampering, and today’s readers can find exact copies of it all over the world. The Qur’an of today is the same as the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad (saw) 1400 years ago.
How is it defined?
Answer: As is explained in the Nineteenth Word and proved in other Words, THE QUR’AN is the pre-eternal translator of the mighty Book of the Universe; the post-eternal interpreter of the various tongues reciting the verses of creation; the commentator of the book of the Worlds of the Seen and the Unseen; the revealer of the treasuries of the Divine Names hidden in the heavens and on the earth; the key to the truths concealed beneath the lines of events; the tongue of the Unseen World in the Manifest World; the treasury of the post-eternal favours of the Most Merciful and of the pre-eternal addresses of the Most Holy, which come from the World of the Unseen beyond the veil of this Manifest World; it is the sun, foundation, and plan of the spiritual world of Islam; the sacred map of the worlds of the hereafter; the expounding word, lucid exposition, decisive proof, and clear interpreter of the Divine Essence, attributes, Names, and functions; it is the instructor of the world of humanity; the light and water of Islam, the macroanthropos; the true wisdom of mankind; and the true guide and leader urging humanity to prosperity and happiness; it is a both a book of law, and a book of prayer, and a book of wisdom, and a book of worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation, and a book of thought, and a unique, comprehensive sacred book comprising many books to which recourse may be had for all the needs of all mankind; it is a revealed scripture resembling a sacred library which offers treatises suitable for all the various ways and different paths of the all the saints and the veracious ones and the wise and the learned, which is appropriate for the illuminations of each way and enlightens it, and is suitable for the course of each path and depicts it.
SECOND PART and complement to the definition:
As is explained and proved in the Twelfth Word, since THE QUR’AN has come from the Sublime Throne and the Greatest Name, and from the highest degree of each Name, it is God’s Word in regard to His being Sustainer of All The Worlds; it is a Divine decree through His title of God of All Beings; it is an address in the name of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth; it is a conversation in respect of absolute dominicality; it is a pre-eternal discourse on account of universal Divine sovereignty; it is a notebook of the favours of the Most Merciful from the point of view of all-embracing, all-encompassing Divine mercy; it is a collection of addresses at the start of which are certain ciphers in respect of the tremendousness of Divine majesty; and through its descent from the comprehensiveness of the Greatest Name, it is a holy scripture full of wisdom which looks to and inspects all sides of the Sublime Throne.
It is because of this mystery that with complete fitness the title of the Word of God has been given to the Qur’an, and is always given. After the Qur’an comes the level of the books and scriptures of the other prophets. However, those other innumerable Divine Words are each in the form of inspiration made manifest through a special regard, a partial title, a particular manifestation, a particular Name, a special dominicality, a particular sovereignty, a special mercy. The inspirations of the angels and man and the animals vary greatly with regard to universality and particularity.
THIRD PART: THE QUR’AN is a revealed scripture which contains in summary the books of all the prophets, whose times were all different, the writings of all the saints, whose paths are all different, and the works of all the purified scholars, whose ways are all different. Its six aspects are all brilliant and refined of the darkness of doubts and scepticism; its point of support is certain heavenly revelation and the pre-eternal Word; its aim and goal is self-evidently eternal happiness; its inner aspect is clearly pure guidance; its upper aspect is necessarily the lights of belief; its lower aspect is undeniably evidence and proof; its right aspect is evidently the surrender of the heart and conscience; its left aspect is manifestly the subjugation of the reason and intellect; its fruit is indisputably the mercy of the Most Merciful and the realm of Paradise; and its rank and desirability are assuredly accepted by the angels and man and the jinn.
Each of the attributes in these Three Parts concerning the Qur’an’s definition have been proved decisively in other places, or they will be proved. Our claims are not isolated; each may be proved with clear proofs.
رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ
“Our Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and (all) the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established.”
“Rabbanagh fir li wa li wallidayya wa lil Mu’mineena yawma yaqumul hisaab”
[Al Qur’an: Surah Ibrahim; Ayat 41
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّار
Rabbana Aatena Feddunnyaa Hasanataw wa fel Aakherate Hasanataw wa Qena Azabannaar.
“O our Lord! Grant us good in the world and good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the fire. (02:201)”
“رَبَّنا لا تُزِغ قُلوبَنا بَعدَ إِذ هَدَيتَنا وَهَب لَنا مِن لَدُنكَ رَحمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الوَهّابُ”
” Rabbana la tuzigh quloobana ba’Ada ith (iz) hadaytana, wahab lanaa min ladunka rahmatan innaka antalwahhaab”.
“Our Lord, let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us and grant us from Yourself mercy. Indeed You are the Bestower.”
[Al Qur’an: Surah Al-‘Imran; Ayat 8]
“Among the best of your days is Friday.On that day invoke blessings on me frequently,for your blessings are presented to Me…”
Prophet Muhammad(Peace be up on him)
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
Allaahumma Sale Alaa Muhammaden wa Alaa Ale Muhammaden Kamaa Sallaita
Alaa Ibraahima wa Ala Ale Ibrahima Innaka Hameedun majeed.
Allahumma Baarek Alaa Muhammaden wa Alaa Aale Muhammaden Kamaa Baarakta,
Alaa Ibraahima wa Ala Ale Ibrahima Innaka Hameedun majeed.
O Allah, bestow Your favor on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad as You have bestowed Your favor on Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim, You are Praiseworthy, Most glorious.
O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You have blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, You are praiseworthy, Most Glorious.
۞•* O Allah, I hope for Your mercy, do not leave me for even the duration of an eye blink and correct my total condition. Besides You there is none worthy of worship•* ۞
اللَّهُمَّ رَحْمَتَكَ أَرْجُو فَلَا تَكِلْنِي إِلَى نَفْسِي طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ وَأَصْلِحْ شَأْنِي كُلَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ
It’s reported on the authority of Anas (Radyallahu Anhu) that the Prophet Mohammad
(Peace be up on him) said:
There are three qualities for which anyone who is characterized by them will relish the sweetness of faith: he to whom Allah and His Messenger are dearer than all else; he who loves a man for Allah’s sake alone; and he who has as great an abhorrence of returning to unbelief after Allah has rescued him from it as he has of being cast into Hell.
Muslim Book 1, Number 0067
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي خَطِيئَتِي وَجَهْلِي وَإِسْرَافِي فِي أَمْرِي وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي جِدِّي وَهَزْلِي وَخَطَئِي وَعَمْدِي وَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ عِنْدِي اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمُؤَخِّرُ وَأَنْتَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
O Allah, forgive me my sin, my ignorance, my extravagance in my affairs, and what You know better than I do.
O Allah, forgive me my serious and my frivolous sins, my unintentional and my intentional sins, for I am guilty of all that.
O Allah, forgive me my former and my latter sins, what I have kept secret and what I have done openly, and what You know better than I do.
You are the advancer, You are the Delayer, and You are the Omnipotent.
“Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protecs all the exists. It is Who has sent down the Book (Al Quran) to you with the truth, confirming what came before it, and He sent down the Taurat (Torah) & the Injil (Gospel).
“(Surah Al Imran: 2-3)
“And We have sent down to you the Book (Al Quran) as an exposition of everything, have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims).
” (Surah an-Nahl: 89)
(In the Name of Allah (SWT), Most Gracious, Most Merciful, all praise and thanks are due to Allah, Lord of the Realms and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (SAWS) and upon all his family and companions)
Not many are aware that a simpleRamadan Dua at a right time can do wonders and this is where one is told to make Dua to ask from our Lord, Allah (SWT) for HIS forgiveness and mercy and bless us all the wishes and desired which we deserve the most and
This is why we are to know that our Beloved Prophet (SAWS) said: “Allah is angry with those who do not ask Him for anything” (Tirmidhi). Why make Him mad? Therefore it is advised that before the month of Ramadan has started make your wish list to make dua for.
In addition, consider the following 5 ways to make a sweet, short and yet effective Dua:
1. Make Your Wish List: Before this blessed month of Ramadan begins you are advised to make a wish list, write it down, enlist it on your phone or any other way that you can possibly remember it to make it.
2. Ask Anything But Halal: Yes, that is right you are to make Dua in which you can include anything or everything you ever wanted, there is no limitations in asking and there is no level of asking, but you are to make sure that the things you wish should be Halal.
3. Categorize Your Dua: The Dua you wish or desire to ask if categorize will make sure that you seek each and everything without missing anything, some of the recommended categories are:
4. Timings For Answering Duas: There is nothing else than desired wish list be granted and this can be done by identifying the right time. We are told that best time of making a dua is the month of Ramadan in which before breaking your fast is the time.
5. Etiquettes Of Dua: There is a proper way to be followed for better chances and to make an effective Dua you are to praise Allah (SWT) The Almighty and our Beloved Prophet (SAWS) before asking for of your own desire.
(In the Name of Allah (SWT), Most Gracious, Most Merciful, all praise and thanks are due to Allah, Lord of the Realms and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (SAWS) and upon all his family and companions)
Not many believers indulge themselves to the Fabulous Book, Beautiful Book, Divine Book of Allah (SWT) in HIS Own words, The Holly Quran.
We as believers should learn this from heart and for such a reason I am asked that what are the most possible ways to learn Quran with ease.
Well I know how can this be a daunting task
For those of you born Muslims or converts it is to say that the following factors are to be considered for the success of such an epic journey to learn Quran:
Time: It might not be an issue for some, but for some it can be very challenging as the fact remains to be daunting that how modern life can make it a problem to spare time for reading and learning Quran.
Study Methods: Each individual is different, in the same respect everyone has its own capabilities of learning and remembering things which helps them to achieve the set objectives just like other areas of knowledge.
Language: We know how language can be a barrier to ones learning but do not be de-motivated as soon as you learn the beauty of the Arabic language it is said to produce such understanding which you would admit is not possible otherwise.
Extracted from Al Hisnul Hasin by Allamah Muhammed Al-Jazri (RA)
English rendering by Maulana Muhammad Rafeeq Hathurani
Posted on the ‘net and transliteration
Greeting another Muslim
As salamu alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.
Translation: May the peace of Allah descend upon you and His Mercy and Blessings.
When salaam is conveyed (when some conveys salam to you on another’s behalf).
Alayka wa alay-his salaamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.
Translation: Upon you and upon him be the peace of Allah, His mercy and blessings.
Before a meal
Bismillahi wa ‘ala baraka-tillah.
Translation: With Allah’s name and uon the blessings granted by Allah (do we eat)
After having a meal
Alham do lillah hilla-thee At Amana wa saquana waja ‘alana minal Muslimeen.
Translation: All praise is due to Allah who gave us food and drink and who made us Muslims.
Dua for ZamZam (Holy Water)
Allah humma Innee As alooka ‘ilman naa fee-ow wa Rizq-ow waa See-ow wa Shee-faa amm min Kooll-lee daa-een.
Translation: O Allah, I ask You to grant me beneficial knowledge, abundant sustenance and cure from all diseases.
Before wudhu (ablution)
Allahumma-gh fir-lee dhan-bee wawass si’lee fi dari wa bariklee fi rizq.
Translation: O Allah Forgive my sins, make my home accommodating and grant me abundance in my livelihood.
Allahummaj ‘al-ni minat-tow-wa beena waj-alni minal muta-tah-hireen.
Translation: I testify that there is no deity except Allah; He is One and has no partner. And I testify that Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is His servant and apostle.
When entering the masjid (mosque)
ALLAHUMA AFTAHLEE ABWAABA RAHMATEKA.
Alhamdulillah! (Right graphic) / Alhamdu lillahi ‘ala kull-lee ha-leen (left graphic).
Translation: Thanks and all praise be to Allah (or) Thanks and all praise be to Allah under all conditions.
Reply to someone who sneezes
Yar Hamoo kall Lah.
Translation: May Allah have mercy on you.
When a Non-Muslim sneezes
Yahdee Kumullahu wa Yaslih Ba Lakoom.
Translation: May Allah give you guidance and make your children pious.
When someone is critically ill
When someone is so critically ill that there is no hope for his recovery, under no circumstances should he (or she) pray for his (or her) death. But if one must, then one should recite the following dua:
Allah-humma ah-yini ma kaanatil hayaatu khairall-lee wa tawaff-fani i-dha kaanatil wa faato khai-rall-lee.
Translation: O Allah, keep me alive so long as it is in my best interest and give me death when it is in my best interest.
When visiting the sick
La ba’sa tahoorun inshaa-Allah. La ba’sa tahoorun inshaa-Allah.
Translation: No need to worry. It (this sickness) is a means of cleansing from sins. No need to worry. It (this sickness) is a means of cleansing from sins.
Dua taught to a new muslim
Allahummagh fir-lee warr hamnee wah-dini warr zuq-ni.
Translation: O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me aright and grant me sustenance.
When entering the toilet
Allahumma in-nee a’oothu bika minal khubu-thee wal khabaa ith.
When leaving the toilet, recite
Alhamdulillah-hilla-thee ath-haba ann-nil athaa wa ‘afaani.
Reaching the top of an incline
Allahumma lakash-sharafu ‘ala kull-lee shara-few walakal hamdu ‘ala kull-li haalin.
Translation: O Allah, all sublimity is for You at every incline and all praise is for You at all times under all conditions.
whenever a person commits any sin, he/she should immediately offer repentance to Allah, saying the following dua.
Allahumma In-nee a-toobu ilayka minha la ar-ji-u ilayhaa abada.
Translation: O Allah, I repent before You for all my sins and I promise never to return to the same (again).
Alhamdulillah-hillathee ah-yana ba’da ma ama tana wa ilayhi nushoor.
Translation: Many thanks to Allah who gave us life after having given us death and (our) final return (on the Day of Qiyaamah (Judgement)) is to Him.
When undertaking a journey
Subhanalla-thee sakh-khara-lana haatha wa-ma kun-na lahoo muqrineena wa inna ila Rabbina la-mun-qali-boon.
Translation: Glory be to Him (Allah) who has brought this (vehicle) under our control though we were unable to control it. Sure, we are to return to our Lord.
Istikhara for nikah (marriage):
When intending to marry someone then even before proposing or expressing one’s intention to propose, one should perform Wudhu in the best of manner and then offer as many Nafl Salaahs as possible. Thereafter one should praise and glorify Allah in the best manner and recite the following Dua:
Translation: O Allah, You have power and I have none. You know all and I know not. You are The Knower of all that is hidden. If, in Your knowledge (mention name of person here) be good for me in my faith and in my temporal and religious life, then ordain her (or him) for me. And if anyone other than her (or him) be good for me in my faith and religious life, then ordain her (or him) for me.
Dua-e-Qunoot (read in Witr)
Translation: O Allah! We beg help from You alone; ask forgiveness from You alone, and turn towards You and praise You for all the good things and are grateful to You and are not ungrateful to You and we part and break off with all those who are disobedient to you. O Allah! You alone do we worship and pray exclusively to You and bow before You alone and we hasten eagerly towards You and we fear Your severe punishment and hope for Your Mercy as your severe punishment is surely to be meted out to the unbelievers. Source: http://www.Islam.tc
Every Friday afternoon, after the Jumma prayers, the Imam and his eleven year old son would go out into their town and hand out “PATH TO PARADISE” and other Islamic literature.
His dad asked, ‘Ready for what’ ‘Dad, it’s time we go out and distribute these Islamic books.’ Dad responds, ‘Son, it’s very cold outside and it’s pouring rain.’ The boy gives his dad a surprised look, asking, ‘But Dad, aren’t people still going to hell, even though it’s raining?’
Dad answers, ‘Son, I am not going out in this weather.’ Despondently, the boy asks, ‘Dad, can I go Please’ His father hesitated for a moment then said, ‘Son, you can go. Here are the booklets. Be careful son.’ ‘Thanks, Dad!’ And with that, he was off and out into the rain.
This eleven year old boy walked the streets of the town going door to door and handing everybody he met in the street a pamphlet or a booklet. After two hours of walking in the rain, he was soaking, bone- chilled wet and down to his VERY LAST BOOKLET.
He stopped on a corner and looked for someone to hand a booklet to, but the streets were totally deserted. Then he turned toward the first home he saw and started up the sidewalk to the front door and rang the door bell. He rang the bell, but nobody answered.. He rang it again and again, but still no one answered. He waited but still no answer. Finally, he turned to leave, but something stopped him. Again, he turned to the door and rang the bell and knocked loudly on the door with his fist. He waited, something holding him there on the front porch! He rang again and this time the door slowly opened.
Standing in the doorway was a very sad-looking elderly lady. She softly asked, ‘What can I do for you, son?’ With radiant eyes and a smile that lit up her world, this little boy said, ‘Ma’am, I’m sorry if I disturbed you, but I just want to tell you that ALLAH REALLY LOVES AND CARES FOR YOU and I came to give you my very last booklet which will tell you all about God, the real purpose of creation, and how to achieve His pleasure.’ With that, he handed her his last booklet and turned to leave.. She called to him as he departed. ‘Thank you, son! And God Bless You!’
Next week on Friday afternoon after Jumma prayers, the Imam was giving some lectures. As he concludes the lectures, he asked, ‘Does anybody have questions or want to say anything?’
Slowly, in the back row among the ladies, an elderly lady’s voice was heard over the speaker. ‘No one in this gathering knows me. I’ve never been here before. You see, before last Friday I was not a Muslim, and thought I could be. My husband died few years ago, leaving me totally alone in this world.. Last Friday, being a particularly cold and rainy day, i was contemplating suicide as i had no hope left. So I took a rope and a chair and ascended the stairway into the attic of my home.. I fastened the rope securely to a rafter in the roof then stood on the chair and fastened the other end of the rope around my neck. Standing on that chair, so lonely and broken-hearted I was about to leap off, when suddenly the loud ringing of my doorbell downstairs startled me.
I thought, I’ll wait a minute, and whoever it is will go away. I waited and waited, but the ringing doorbell seemed to get louder and more insistent, and then the person ringing also started knocking loudly….. I thought to myself again, ‘Who on earth could this be? Nobody ever rings my bell or comes to see me.’ I loosened the rope from my neck and started for the front door, all the while the bell rang louder and louder.
When I opened the door and looked I could hardly believe my eyes, for there on my front porch was the most radiant and angelic little boy I had ever seen in my life. His SMILE, oh, I could never describe it to you! The words that came from his mouth caused my heart that had long been dead TO LEAP TO LIFE as he exclaimed with a cherub-like voice, ‘Ma’am, I just came to tell you that ALLAH REALLY LOVES AND CARES FOR YOU!’ Then he gave me this booklet, Path To Paradise that I now hold in my hand. As the little angel disappeared back out into the cold and rain, I closed my door and read slowly every word of this book. Then I went up to my attic to get my rope and chair. I wouldn’t be needing them any more. You see? I am now a Happy Vicegerent of the One True God. Since the address of your congregation was stamped on the back of this booklet, I have come here to personally say THANK YOU to God’s little angel who came just in the nick of time and by so doing, spared my soul from an eternity in hell.’
There was not a dry eye in the mosque. The shouts of TAKBIR…ALLAH AKBAR.. rented the air. Imam-Dad descended from the pulpit to the front row where the little angel was seated…. He took his son in his arms and sobbed uncontrollably. Probably no jama’at has had a more glorious moment, and probably this universe has never seen a father that was more filled with love and honor for his son… Except for One. This very one…
Rejab is one of the four months declared sacred by Allah (SWT) in the Glorious Qur’an.
Special prayers and Aa’mal that can be prayed and carried out on any day or daily for this seventh month of Islamic lunar calendar delivered by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw):
1. The month of Rejab, in its superabundant favors and benefits, reverence and sanctity, is next to none. It is linked to Almighty Allah (SWT) as Sya’ban to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) and Ramadan to his Ummah (Muslim Community).
2. Who so observes fast (even one day) during the month of Rejab gets Allah’s pleasure. Allahhuakbar.
3. Ask forgiveness and turn repentant to Allah (SWT) as much as you can because mercy drops from the heaven like a gentle rain in the month of Rejab (also known as “As’abb” – pouring out, full of love and kindness).
4. Allah (SWT) shall forgive and have mercy on him who recites:
(I ask forgiveness of Allah, who is “There is no God save He, and no other; has no partner”; and I turn repentant to Him)
at least 100 times (400 times will accrue more rewards), and recites “Laa Ilaaha Illallaah” 1000 times, during the month of Rejab, and gives alms or sadaqah in the name of Allah at the completion.
5. Recite Surah Al-Ikhlas at least 100 times (1000 or 10000 times will accrue more rewards) in the month of Rejab.
6. Keep fast on any day in the month of Rejab. So let’s start tomorrow.
The Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) has said: “Rejab is a great month of Allah (SWT), unmatched by any other month in
the respect and significance (accorded to it); war with the infidels during this month is prohibited; Verily, Rejab is Allah’s month, Sya’ban my month and Ramadan the month of my Ummah; whosoever fasts a day in the month of Rejab will be granted the great reward of Ridwan (an angel in heaven); the wrath of Allah (SWT) shall be distanced and a door of the Hell shall be closed.”
Hazrat Salman Al-Farsi narrates that Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said that there is a day in the month of Rejab on which if a person fasts and does Qiyaamul Lail (night vigil) on that night, he will receive rewards like a person who fasts for 100 years and does Qiyaamul Lail for nights of 100 years. This night is the night of the 27th (Rejab) and the day of the 27th (Rejab). This is the day on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) was appointed to Messenger hood.
Hazrat Salman Al-Farsi narrates that the Beloved of Allah, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said “O Salman, there is no Mumin (True Believer) and Muminah (Truly Believing Female) who performs 30 Raka’ah in the month of Rejab and in each Raka’ah recites Surah Al-Fatihah once, Surah Al-Ikhlas 3 times, and Surah Al-Kafiroon 3 times that Allah (SWT) does forgive them their sins and bestows rewards upon them as upon a person who has fasted a whole month. He becomes among those who will be steadfast in their Salaat in the year which is to come. For him the deeds of the day are equal to that of the martyr. He will be raised with the Martyrs of the Holy Battle of Badr. For him is written for the fast of each day, one year’s worship. His station is raised 1000 times higher.
Is there any special virtue in fasting during the month of Rajab?.
The month of Rajab is one of the sacred months of which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein”
The sacred months are: Rajab, Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram.
Al-Bukhaari (4662) and Muslim (1679) narrated from Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The year is twelve months, of which four are sacred: three consecutive months, Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.
These months are called sacred for two reasons:
1- Because fighting therein is forbidden unless initiated by the enemy
2- Because transgression of the sacred limits therein is worse than at other times.
Hence Allaah has forbidden us to commit sins during these months, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“wrong not yourselves therein”
Although committing sins is haraam and forbidden during these months and at other times, in these months it is more forbidden.
Al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said (p. 373):
In the phrase “wrong not yourselves therein”, the pronoun may be understood as referring to twelve months. Allaah states that He has made them a measure of time for His slaves, which they may use for worshipping Him, and thank Allaah for His blessings, and they serve the interests of His slaves, so beware of wronging yourselves therein.
The pronoun may also be understood as referring to the four sacred months, and this forbids them to wrong themselves in those months in particular, as well as it being forbidden to do wrong at all times, because it is more forbidden at this time, but it is worse at this time than at others. End quote.
With regard to fasting the month of Rajab, there is no saheeh hadeeth to indicate that there is any special virtue in fasting all or part of this month.
What some people do, singling out some days of Rajab for fasting, believing that they are better than others, has no basis in sharee’ah.
But there is a report from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which indicates that it is mustahabb to fast during the sacred months (and Rajab is one of the sacred months). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Fast some days of the sacred months and not others.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2428; classed as da’eef by al-Albaani in Da’eef Abi Dawood.
Even if this hadeeth were saheeh, it indicates that it is mustahabb to fast during the sacred months. So if a person fasts during Rajab because of this, and he also fasts in the other sacred months, there is nothing wrong with that. But singling out Rajab for fasting is not right.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (25/290):
As for fasting in Rajab in particular, the ahaadeeth concerning that are all da’eef (weak), and in fact mawdoo’ (fabricated). The scholars do not rely on any of them. They are not among the da’eef ahaadeeth which have been narrated concerning virtues, rather most of them are fabricated and false. In al-Musnad and elsewhere there is a hadeeth which says that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined fasting the sacred months, namely Rajab, Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, but this has to do with fasting during all of them, not just Rajab. End quote.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Every hadeeth which mentions fasting in Rajab and praying during some of its nights is false and fabricated.” End quote from al-Manaar al-Muneef, p. 96
Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said in Tabyeen al-‘Ajab (p. 11)
There is no saheeh hadeeth that would count as evidence which speaks of the virtue of the month of Rajab, or that speaks of fasting this month or part of it, or of spending any particular night of it in prayer.
Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Fiqh al-Sunnah (1/282):
Fasting in Rajab is no better than fasting in any other month, except that it is one of the sacred months. There is no report in the saheeh Sunnah to suggest that there is anything special about fasting in this month. Whatever has been narrated concerning that is not fit to be quoted as evidence. End quote.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about fasting on the twenty-seventh of Rajab and spending that night in prayer. He replied:
Fasting on the twenty-seventh of Rajab and spending that night in prayer is a bid’ah (innovation), and every bid’ah is a going astray. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 20/440.
Imam al-Nawawi said:
“Neither prohibition nor praiseworthiness has been established for the month of Rajab in itself, HOWEVER,
(1) the principle concerning fasting is that it is praiseworthy in itself, and
(2) in the Sunan of Abu Dawud the Prophet has made the fasting of the sacred months praiseworthy, and Rajab is one of them.”
1. `Uthman ibn Hakim al-Ansari said: “I asked Sa`eed ibn Jubayr about fasting in Rajab, and we were then passing through the month of Rajab, whereupon he said: “I heard Ibn `Abbas saying: “The Messenger of Allah used to observe fast so continuously that we thought he would not break it, and did not observe it so continuously that we thought he would not observe fast.” Muslim and Abu Dawud relate it in Kitab al-sawm, respectively in the chapter on fasting at times other than Ramadan, and in the chapter of fasting during Rajab.
Imam Nawawi says: “It would appear that the meaning inferred by Sa`eed ibn Jubayr from Ibn `Abbas’s report is that fasting in Rajab is is neither forbidden nor considered praiseworthy in itself, rather, the ruling concerning it is the same as the rest of the months. Neither prohibition not praiseworthiness has been established for the month of Rajab in itself, however, the principle concerning fasting is that it is praiseworthy in itself, and in the Sunan of Abu Dawud(*) the Prophet has made the fasting of the sacred months praiseworthy, and Rajab is one of them. And Allah knows best.” Sharh Sahih Muslim Kitab 13 Bab 34 #179.
(*) Kitab al-siyam, Chapter: “Fasting During the Sacred Months”. Also in Ibn Majah and Ahmad, hadith of the man who repeats: “I can bear more,” and to whom the Prophet finally says: “Fast during the sacred months.”
It is established that Ibn `Umar fasted during the sacred months: Musannaf `Abd al-Razzaq 4:293, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:125.
2. Abdullah, the freed slave of Asma’ the daughter of Abu Bakr, the maternal uncle of the son of `Ata’, reported: “Asma’ sent me to Abdullah ibn `Umar saying: “The news has reached me that you prohibit the use of three things: the striped robe, saddle cloth made of red silk, and fasting the whole month of Rajab.” Abdullah said to me: “So far as what you say about fasting in the month of Rajab, how about one who observes continuous fasting? And so far as what you say about the striped garment, I heard `Umar ibn al-Khattab say that he had heard from Allah’s Messenger : “He who wears a silk garment, has no share for him (in the Hereafter).” And I am afraid that stripes were part of it. And so far as the red saddle cloth is concerned, here is Abdullah’s saddle cloth [=his] and it is red. I went back to Asma’ and informed her, so she said: “Here is the cloak (jubba) of Allah’s Messenger ,” and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of (silk) brocade, and its sleeves bordered with (silk) brocade, and said: “This was Allah’s Messenger’s cloak with `A’isha until she died, then I got possession of it. The Apostle of Allah used to wear that, and we washed it for the sick so that they could seek cure thereby.”” Muslim relates in the first chapter of Kitab al-libas.
Nawawi says: “`Umar’s reply concerning fasting in Rajab is a denial on his part of what Asma’ had heard with regard to his forbidding it, and it is an affirmation that he fasted Rajab in its entirety as well as fasting permanently, i.e. except the days of `Id and tashreeq. This is his madhhab and the madhhab of his father `Umar ibn al-Khattab, `A’isha, Abu Talha, and others of the Salaf as well as Shafi`i and other scholars. Their position is that perpetual fasting is not disliked (makruh).”
[Another opinion is reported from Ibn `Umar through a hadith from Ahmad reported in “al-Mughni” 3:167 whereby he disliked that people fast the whole of Rajab but said: “Fast some of it and break fast in some of it.”]
* * * * *Nawawi adds: “In this hadith is a proof that it is recommended to seek blessings through the relics of the righteous and their clothes (wa fi hadha al-hadith dalil `ala istihbab al-tabarruk bi aathaar al-salihin wa thiyabihim).” Sharh sahih Muslim Kitab 37 Bab 2 #10.
3. Bayhaqi relates in Shu`ab al-iman (#3802):
Abu Abdallah al-Hafiz and Abu Muhammad ibn Abi Hamid al-Muqri said:
from Abu al-`Abbas al-Asamm,
from Ibrahim ibn Sulayman al-Barlisi,
from Abdallah ibn Yusuf,
from `Amer ibn Shibl,
who said: “I heard Abu Qilaba say:
“There is a palace in Paradise for those who fast the month of Rajab.”
Bayhaqi adds: “Even if it is mawquf at Abu Qilaba (i.e. not traced back to the Prophet) who is one of the Successors, such as he does not say such a saying except if it were related to him by someone who had heard it from him to whom revelation comes (i.e. the Prophet ), and success is from Allah.””
Blessings and Peace on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions.
NEARLY four thousand years ago, in the Sumerian town of Ur in the valley of the river Euphrates, lived a young man named Abraham. The people of Ur had once worshipped Allah but as time passed they forgot the true religion and started praying to idols, statues made of wood or clay and sometimes even of precious stones.
Even as a small child Abraham could not understand how his people, and especially his father, could make these images with their own hands, call them gods, and then worship them. He had always refused to join his people when they paid respect to these statues. Instead he would leave the town and sit alone, thinking about the heavens and the world about him. He was sure his people were doing wrong and so alone he searched for the right way.
One clear night as he sat staring at the sky he saw a beautiful shining star, so beautiful that he cried out: ‘This must be Allah!’ He looked at it in awe for some time, until suddenly it began to fade and then it disappeared. He turned away in disappointment saying:
I love not things that set
On another night Abraham was again looking at the sky and he saw the rising moon, so big and bright that he felt he could almost touch it. He thought to himself:
This is my Lord.
But it was not long before the moon set as well. Then he said,
Unless my Lord guide me, I surely
shall become one of the folk who are astray.
Abraham then saw the beauty and splendor of the sunrise and decided that the sun must be the biggest and most powerful thing in the universe. But for the third time he was wrong, for the sun set at the end of the day. It was then that he realized that Allah is the Most Powerful, the Creator of the stars, the moon, the sun, the earth and of all living things. Suddenly he felt himself totally at peace, because he knew that he had found the Truth.
When he said unto his father and his folk:
What do you worship?
They said: We worship idols, and are ever devoted to them.
He said: Do they hear you when you cry?
Or do they benefit or harm you?
They said: Nay, but we found our fathers acting in this manner.
He said: See now that which you worship, You and your forefathers!
Lo! they are (all) an enemy to me, except the Lord of the Worlds.
Who created me, and He guides me, And Who feeds me and waters me.
And when I sicken, then He heals me. And Who causes me to die,
then gives me lift (again) And Who, I ardently hope, will forgive me
my sin on the Day of judgment.
One day, while all the townspeople were out, Abraham angrily smashed all the idols with his right hand except for one which was very large. When the people returned they were furious. They remembered the things Abraham had said about the idols. They had him brought forth before everyone and demanded, ‘Is it you who did this to our gods, O Abraham?’ Abraham replied, But this their chief did it. Ask them, if they are able to speak.’ The people exclaimed, ‘You know they do not speak.’ ‘Do you worship what you yourselves have carved when Allah created you and what you make?’ Abraham continued, ‘Do you worship instead of Allah that which cannot profit you at all, nor harm you?’
Finally, Abraham warned them,
Serve Allah, and keep your duty unto Him; that
is better for you if you did but know.
You serve instead of Allah only idols, and you
only invent a lie. Lo! those whom you serve instead
of Allah own no provision for you. So seek your
provision from Allah, and serve Him, and give thanks
unto Him, (for) unto Him you will be brought back.
(Koran xxix. 16-17)
The people of Ur decided to give Abraham the worst punishment they could find: he was to be burnt to death. On the chosen day all the people gathered in the center of the city and even the King of Ur was there. Abraham was then placed inside a special building filled with wood. The wood was lit. Soon the fire became so strong that the people were pushed back by the flames. But Allah said:
O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham.
The people waited until the fire had completely died down, and it was then that they saw Abraham still sitting there as though nothing had happened! At that moment they were utterly confused. They were not, however, moved by the miracle that had just happened before their very eyes. Still Abraham tried to persuade his own dear father, who was named Azar, not to worship powerless, un-seeing, un-hearing statues. Abraham explained that special knowledge had come to him and implored his father, ‘So follow me and I will lead you on the right path. O my father! Don’t serve the Devil.’ But Azar would not listen. He threatened his son with stoning if he continued to reject the gods of Ur. He ordered Abraham to leave the city with these words: ‘Depart from me a long while.’ Abraham said, ‘Peace be upon you! I shall ask my Lord’s forgiveness for you. Surely He was ever gracious to me.’
Imagine how terrible it must have been for him to leave his home, his family and all that he knew, and set out across the wilderness into the unknown. But at the same time, how could he have remained among people who did not believe in Allah and who worshipped statues? Abraham always had a sense that Allah cared for him and he felt Allah near him as he traveled. At last, after a long hard journey, he arrived at a place by the Mediterranean Sea, not far from Egypt. There he married a noble woman by the name of Sarah and settled in the land of Palestine.
Many years passed but Abraham and his wife were not blessed with any children. In the hope that there would be a child, and in keeping with tradition, Sarah suggested that Abraham should marry Hagar, her Egyptian handmaid. Soon after this took place, Hagar had a little boy named Ishmael. Some time later Allah promised Abraham another son, but this time the mother of the child would be his first wife, Sarah. This second son would be called Isaac. Allah also told Abraham that from his two sons-Ishmael and Isaac-two nations and three religions would be founded and because of this he must take Hagar and Ishmael away from Palestine to a new land. These events were an important part of Allah’s plan, for the descendants of Ishmael would form a nation from which would come a great Prophet, who would guide the people in the way of Allah. This was to be Muhammad (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). From the descendants of Sarah’s child, Isaac, would come Moses and Jesus.
So it was that Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael left Palestine. They traveled for many days until finally they reached the arid valley of Bacca later to be called Mecca), which was on one of the great caravan routes. There was no water in the valley and although Hagar and Ishmael only had a small supply of water left, Abraham left them there knowing Allah would take care of them.
Soon all the water was gone. The child began to grow weak from thirst. There were two hills nearby, one called Safa and the other Marwah. Hagar went up one hill and looked into the distance to see if she could find any water, but found none. So she went to the other hill and did the same. She did this seven times. Then sadly she returned to her son, and to her great surprise and joy she found a spring of water bubbling out of the earth near him. This spring, near which the mother and child settled, was later called Zamzam.
The area around it became a place of rest for the caravans traveling across the desert and in time grew into the famous trading city of Mecca. From time to time Abraham traveled from Palestine to visit his family and he saw Ishmael grow into a strong young man. It was during one of these visits that Allah commanded them to rebuild the Ka’bah-the very first place where people had worshipped Allah.
They were told exactly where and how to build it. It was to be erected by the well of Zamzam and built in the shape of a cube. In its eastern corner was to be placed a black stone that had fallen to earth from heaven. An angel brought the stone to them from the hill of Abu Qubays.
Abraham and Ishmael worked har’bah and as they did so they prayed to Allah to send a Prophet from among their descendants.
And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising
the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed):
‘Our Lord! Receive this from us;
Thou, only Thou, art the All-hearing, the All-knowing;
Our Lord! And make us submissive unto
Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto
Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and turn
toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the
Relenting, the Merciful.
Our Lord! And raise up in their midst
a messenger from among them who shall recite unto
them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in
the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them
grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise.
When the Ka’bah was completed, Allah commanded Abraham to call mankind to pilgrimage to His Holy House. Abraham wondered how anyone could hear his call. Allah said, ‘You call and I will bring them.’ This was how the pilgrimage to the Ka’bah in Mecca was established and when Muslims make the pilgrimage today they continue to answer the age-old call of Abraham.
ONE day, while traveling north, one of the Arab tribes from Mecca met a hermit in the desert. Some of the men stopped to speak with him. Hermits were known to be wise and the Arabs often asked their advice.
The hermit asked where they had come from. When they replied that they were from Mecca, he told them that Allah would soon send a prophet, who would come from their people. They asked the name of this prophet and the hermit answered that his name would be Muhammad and that he would guide them to a new way of life.
Meanwhile in Mecca, Aminah, although saddened by the loss of her husband, felt especially well and strong as she awaited the birth of her baby. During this time she dreamt of many things. On one occasion it was as if a great light were shining out of her, and on another she heard a voice telling her that she would have a boy and that his name would be Muhammad. She never forgot that voice but she told no one about it.
On Monday, the twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the Year of the Elephant, Aminah gave birth to a son. Allah sends man many signs when one of His chosen Prophets is born and on that twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 570 A.D, many such signs were seen. Some were seen by Jewish scholars who had read in their scriptures of a coming Prophet. One of these learned men in Yathrib, for instance, saw a brilliant new star he had never seen before as he studied the heavens that night. He called the people around him and, pointing the star out to them, told them a Prophet must have been born.
That same night another Jew was passing by the meeting place of the leaders of Quraysh in Mecca. He asked them if a baby boy had just been born and told them that if it were true, this would be the Prophet of the Arab nation.
Aminah sent news of the birth to her father-in-law, ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was sitting near the Ka’bah at the time. He was very happy and began at once to think of a name for the boy. An ordinary name would not do. Six days came and went and still he had not decided. But on the seventh day, as he lay asleep near the Ka’bah, ‘Abd al-Muttalib dreamt that he should give the baby the unusual name of Muhammad, just as Aminah herself had dreamt. And the child was called Muhammad (pbuh), which means ‘the Praised One’.
When ‘Abd al-Muttalib told the leaders of Quraysh what he had named his grandson, many of them asked, ‘Why did you not choose the sort of name that is used by our people?’ At once he replied, ‘I want him to be praised by Allah in the heavens and praised by men on earth.’
ABRAHAH, who came from Abyssinia-a country in Africa-conquered Yemen and was made vice-regent there. Later, he noticed that at a certain time of the year large numbers of people would travel from all over Yemen and the rest of Arabia to Mecca. He asked the reason for this and was told that they were going on pilgrimage to the Ka’bah.
Abrahah hated the idea of Mecca being more important than his own country, so he decided to build a church of colored marble, with doors of gold and ornaments of silver, and ordered the people to visit it instead of the Ka’bah. But no one obeyed him.
Abrahah became angry and decided to destroy the Ka1bah. He prepared a large army led by an elephant and set off towards Mecca. When the Meccans heard that he was coming they became very frightened. Abrahah’s army was huge and they could not fight it. But how could they let him destroy the Holy Ka’bah? They went to ask the advice of their leader, ‘Abd al-Muttalib.
When Abrahah arrived outside Mecca, ‘Abd al-Muttalib went to meet him. Abrahah said, ‘What do you want?’ Abrahah had taken Abd al-Muttalib’s camels, which he had found grazing as he entered Mecca, so ‘Abd al-Muttalib replied, ‘I want my camels back.’ Abrahah was very surprised and said, ‘I have come to destroy your Holy Ka’bah, the holy place of your fathers, and you ask me about some camels?’ ‘Abd al-Muttalib replied calmly, ‘The camels belong to me; the Ka’bah belongs to Allah and He will protect it.’ Then he left Abrahah and went back to Quraysh and ordered them to leave Mecca and wait for their enemies in the mountains.
In the morning Abrahah prepared to enter the town. He put armor on his elephant and drew up his troops for battle. He intended to destroy the Ka’bah and then return to Yemen. At that moment, however, the elephant knelt down and refused to get up, no matter how much the soldiers tried to get it to move by beating it. But when they turned its face in the direction of Yemen it immediately got up and started off. In fact, it did the same in any other direction, but as soon as they pointed it towards Mecca it knelt down again.
Suddenly, flocks of birds appeared from over the sea. Each bird carried three stones as small as peas and they dropped them on Abrahah1s army. The soldiers suddenly fell ill. Even Abrahah was hit by the stones and fled in fear with the rest of his army back to Yemen, where he later died. On seeing their enemy flee the Arabs came down from the mountains to the Ka’bah and gave thanks to Allah.
After this, Quraysh gained great respect and became known as ‘the people of Allah’, and the year in which these events took place, 570A.D, was named the ‘Year of the Elephant’. In that year Allah had saved the Ka’bah and he would soon bring forth a Prophet from among Quraysh.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the owners of the Elephant?
Did He not bring their stratagem to naught,
And send against them swarms of flying creatures,
Which pelted them with stones of baked clay,
And made them like green crops devoured (by cattle)?
LIKE many other women in Mecca, Aminah decided to send her son away from the city for his early years to the desert where it was more healthy. Women from the desert used to come to Mecca to collect the new babies and they would then keep them until they developed into strong children, for which they were well paid by the parents.
Among the women who traveled to Mecca to fetch a new baby at the time Aminah’s son was born, was a Bedouin woman called Halimah. With her was her husband and baby son. They had always been very poor but this year things were harder than ever because there had been famine. The donkey that earned Halimah on the journey was so weak from hunger that he often stumbled. Halimah’s own baby son cried all the time because his mother could not feed him properly. Even their she-camel did not give them one drop of milk. Halimah did not know what to do. She thought to herself, ‘How can I possibly feed another baby when I haven’t got enough milk even for my own son?’ At last they reached Mecca. All the other women of the tribe to which Halimah belonged, the Bani Sa’d, found a child to take back with them, but not Halimah. The only baby left was Muhammad (pbuh). Usually the father paid the wet-nurse but Muhammad’s father was dead. So no one wanted to take him, even though he was from one of the noblest families of Quraysh.
Halimah did not want to take him either, but she did not want to be the only woman to go back to her tribe without a baby to bring up. She asked her husband whether she should take Muhammad (pbuh) or not. He advised her to do so, adding, ‘Perhaps Allah will bless us because of him.’ They started on the return journey and as soon as Halimah began to feed Muhammad (pbuh) her milk suddenly increased and she had enough for him as well as her baby son. When they were back home, everything began to change. The land became green, and the date trees, one of their main sources of food, gave lots of fruit. Even the sheep and their old she-camel began to give plenty of milk. Halimah and her husband knew that this good fortune had come because they had the new baby, Muhammad (pbuh), whom they had come to love as if he were their own son.
When Muhammad (pbuh) was two years old, Halimah took him back to his mother. She pleaded with Aminah, however, to let her keep him for a little longer, and to her great joy the mother agreed. During his time with Halimah’s family in the desert, Muhammad (pbuh) played with her children and together they would take the sheep out to graze. At other times, however, Halimah would often find him sitting alone.
It is said that on one occasion, two angels came to Muhammad (pbuh) and washed his heart with snow. In this way Allah made his heart pure for He intended Muhammad (pbuh) to be greater than any man ever born and to become the Seal of the Prophets.
In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful
Did We not expand thy breast for thee.
And eased thee of thy burden.
Which weighed down thy back;
And exalted thy fame?
So truly with hardship comes ease,
Truly with hardship comes ease.
So when thou art relieved, still toil
And strive to please thy Lord.
When Halimah finally took Muhammad (pbuh) back to Aminah, he was a healthy, strong boy. Later he would look back with joy on the time he had spent with Halimah, and he always thought of himself as one of the Bani Sa’d.
MUHAMMAD (pbuh) returned to live with his mother in Mecca when he was about three years old. Three years later Aminah decided to take her son to visit his uncles in Yathrib. She told her maid, Barakah, to prepare everything they would need for the long journey, and then they joined one of the caravans going there.
They stayed in Yathrib a month and Muhammad (pbuh) enjoyed the visit with his cousins. The climate there was very pleasant and he learned to swim and to fly a kite. On their way back to Mecca, however, Aminah became ill and died. She was buried in the village at al-Abwa not far from Yathrib. Muhammad (pbuh) returned sadly to Mecca with his mother’s maid He was now six years old and had lost both his father and mother. He was then adopted by his grandfather, ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who loved him dearly and kept him by his side at all times.
It was the custom of ‘Abd al-Muttalib to sit on a blanket near the Ka’bah. There he was always surrounded by people who had come to speak to him. No one was allowed to sit on the blanket with him, however, except his grandson Muhammad (pbuh), which shows how close they were to each other. Many times ‘Abd al-Muttalib was heard to say: ‘This boy will be very important one day.’
Two years later ‘Abd al-Muttalib became ill and Muhammad (pbuh) stayed by him constantly. ‘Abd al-Muttalib told his son, Abu Talib, to adopt Muhammad (pbuh) after his death, which he did. Abu Talib had many children of his own, but Muhammad (pbuh) immediately became part of his family and the favorite child.
The time came for Quraysh to prepare a caravan to go to Syria. Abu Talib was going with them and he took Muhammad (pbuh) along. It was Muhammad’s first journey to the north. After days of travel, the caravan arrived at a place near Syria where the Romans used to come to trade with the Arabs. Near this marketplace lived a monk called Bahira’. His cell had been used by generations of monks before him and contained ancient manuscripts.
Bahira’ saw the caravan in the distance and was amazed to see that over it was a large white cloud. It was the only cloud in a clear blue sky and it appeared to be shading one of the travelers. The monk was even more surprised to see that the cloud seemed to follow the caravan but disappeared when the person it was shading sat down under a tree. Bahira’ knew from the scriptures that a prophet was expected to come after Jesus and it had been his wish to see this prophet before he died. Realizing that what he had just seen was a miracle, he began to think that his wish might, after all, come true.
The monk sent an invitation to the Meccans to come and eat with him. The Arabs were surprised because they often passed by and Bahira’ had never invited them before. When the group was all together for the meal, the monk said, ‘Is this everyone?’ ‘No’, someone said, ‘a boy was left watching the camels.’
Bahira’ insisted that the boy should join them. The boy was Muhammad (pbuh). When he arrived Bahira’ said nothing, but watched him all through the meal. He noticed many things about his appearance which fitted the description in the old manuscripts. Later on he took him aside and asked Muhammad (pbuh) many questions. He soon found out how he felt about the idols in the Ka’bah. When Bahira tried to make him swear by them, as the Arabs used to do, Muhammad (pbuh) said, ‘There is nothing in this world that I hate more’. They talked together about Allah, and about Muhammad’s life and family. What was said made Bahira certain that this was indeed the Prophet who would follow Jesus.
Then the monk went to Abu Talib and asked him how he was related to Muhammad (pbuh). Abu Talib told him that Muhammad (pbuh) was his son. Bahira replied that this could not be so because the boy was destined to grow up an orphan, and he ordered Abu Talib to watch over Muhammad (pbuh) with great care. There are many stories told about Muhammad’s youth. Some tell of how he used to take the family’s sheep to graze and was always kind to them. While they grazed he would sit thinking about the mysteries of nature. Unlike those around him, he never worshipped the idols and never swore by them. He also wondered why people were always struggling for power and money, and this saddened him and made him feel lonely, but he kept his feelings to himself. He was a quiet, thoughtful boy, and rarely played with other boys of his age.
On one occasion, however, Muhammad (pbuh) went with some of the boys to a wedding in Mecca. When he reached the house he heard the sounds of music and dancing but just as he was about to enter he suddenly felt tired and, sitting down, fell asleep. He didn’t wake up until late the next morning and thus missed the celebrations. In this way Allah prevented him from doing anything foolish for He was keeping Muhammad (pbuh) for something much more important.
By the time Muhammad (pbuh) was twenty-five he was famous for his honesty. He was respected by everyone, even the elders of Mecca. The purity of his nature increased with the years. It seemed he had an inner knowledge that other people did not have. He believed in one God-Creator of the world-and he worshipped Him with all his heart and with all his soul. Muhammad (pbuh) was the finest of his people, the most kind, truthful and reliable person in Mecca. He was known among Quraysh as ‘the trustworthy’ (al-Amin) because of the good qualities Allah had given him. He spent many quiet hours in a cave in Mount Hira’, not far from Mecca, thinking about Allah.
Among Quraysh was a respected and wealthy woman named Khadijah. She was involved in trade and on hearing of Muhammad’s reputation, sent for him and asked him to take her goods and trade with them in Syria. Muhammad (pbuh) agreed and left for Syria with one of Khadijah’s caravans. With him went her slave, Maysarah, and they spent a great deal of time talking together. Maysarah soon came to admire Muhammad (pbuh). He thought he was quite different from all the other men of Quraysh.
Two unusual events took place during this journey which puzzled Maysarah very much. The first happened when they stopped to rest near the lonely home of a monk. Muhammad (pbuh) sat under a tree while Maysarah was busy with some work. The monk came up to Maysarah and asked, ‘Who is the man resting under the tree?’
‘One of Quraysh, the people who guard the Ka’bah’, said Maysarah. ‘No one but a Prophet is sitting beneath this tree’, replied the monk. The second event occurred on the journey back to Mecca. It happened at noon, when the sun is at its hottest. Maysarah was riding behind Muhammad (pbuh) and as the sun grew hotter he saw two angels appear above Muhammad (pbuh) and shield him from the sun’s harmful rays. The trading was very successful and Muhammad (pbuh) made more profit for Khadijah than she had ever received before. When they arrived back in Mecca Maysarah told Khadijah everything about the trip and what he had noticed about Muhammad’s character and behavior.
Khadijah was a widow in her forties and as well as being rich and Highly respected she was also very beautiful. Many men wanted to marry her but none of them suited her. When she met Muhammad (pbuh), however, she thought he was very special. She sent a friend to ask Muhammad (pbuh)why he was not married. Muhammad (pbuh) said that it was because he had no money, to which the friend replied: ‘Supposing a rich, beautiful and noble lady agreed to marry you?’ Muhammad (pbuh) wanted to know who that could be. The friend told him it was Khadijah. Muhammad (pbuh) was very happy, because he greatly respected Khadijah. He went with his uncles, Abu Talib and Hamzah, to Khadijah’s uncle, and asked his permission to marry her. The uncle gave his permission and soon after, Muhammad (pbuh) and Khadijah were married.
Their marriage was a joyful one and Muhammad (pbuh) and Khadijah were well suited. Their life together, however, was not without some sadness. They were blessed with six children, two sons and four daughters. Sadly their first born, a son called Qasim, died shortly before his second birthday, and their last child, also a son, only lived for a short time. Happily, their four daughters-Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah-all survived.
For a few years Muhammad (pbuh) lived a calm and quiet life as a merchant in Mecca. His wisdom benefited many people. One such time was when Quraysh decided to rebuild the Ka’bah. It was a difficult decision for them because they had to knock it down before rebuilding it and the people were afraid that Allah might be angry with them for knocking down His sanctuary. At last one of the wise old men of Quraysh decided to begin, then everybody followed him.
They worked until they reached down to the first foundation that Abraham had built. As soon as they began to remove the stones of this foundation, however, the whole of Mecca began to shake. They were so afraid that they decided to leave these stones where they were and build on top of them.
Each tribe brought stones and they built the Ka’bah up until they reached the place where the black stone was to be set. They then began to argue about who should have the honor of carrying the black stone and lifting it to its place in one of the corners of the Ka’bah. They almost came to blows but fortunately one of the men offered a solution. He suggested that they should be guided by the first person to enter the place of worship. They all agreed and as Muhammad (pbuh) was the first to enter everyone was pleased, because they all trusted him. They told him the cause of the argument and he asked them to bring a large cloak. They did as he asked, and after spreading the cloak on the ground he placed the black stone in the center of it. Then he asked a man from each tribe to hold one edge of the cloak and together to raise it to the height where the stone should be see. When this was done, he took the stone off the cloak and put it into place himself.
This story shows how all Quraysh respected and trusted Muhammad (pbuh) and how, by his wisdom and good sense, he was able to keep the peace.
MUHAMMAD (pbuh) believed that there was only one Allah, Creator of the sun, the moon, the earth, the sky, and of all living things, and that all people should worship only Him. Muhammad (pbuh) would often leave the crowded city and go to the cave in Mount Hira’. He liked to be alone there, away from all thoughts of the world and daily life, eating and drinking little.
In his fortieth year, Muhammad (pbuh) left Mecca to spend Ramadan, the traditional month of retreat, in the cave. In the second half of Ramadan, Allah began to reveal His message for mankind through Muhammad (pbuh). This first Revelation occurred as follows. The Archangel Gabriel came to Muhammad (pbuh) in the cave and commanded him to ‘Read’.
Muhammad (pbuh) replied ‘I cannot read.’ At this the Archangel took Muhammad (pbuh) in his arms and pressed him to him until it was almost too much to bear. He then released him and said again ‘Read.’
‘I cannot’, replied Muhammad (pbuh), at which the Archangel embraced
him again. For the third time the Archangel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) to read, but still he said he could not and was again embraced. On releasing him this time, however, the Archangel Gabriel said:
Read: In the Name of thy Lord who createth,
Createth man from a clot.
Read: And thy Lord is the Most Generous
Who teacheth by the pen,
Teacheth man that which he knew not.
Muhammad (pbuh) repeated these verses, just as the Archangel had said them. When the Archangel was sure Muhammad (pbuh) knew them by heart, he we away. Now that he was alone Muhammad (pbuh) could not understand what had happened to him. He was terribly afraid and rushed out of the cave. Perhaps the cave was haunted? Perhaps the devil had taken a hold of his mind? But he was stopped by a voice from heaven which said; ‘O Muhammad (pbuh) you are the Messenger of Allah, and I am Gabriel.’ He looked up at the sky and wherever he turned he saw the Archangel Gabriel.
In a state of confusion he returned home to Khadijah. When his wife saw him she became very worried as he began to shiver, as though in a fever. He asked her to wrap him in blankets, which she did. After a while he recovered sufficiently to tell her what had happened at Hira’. Khadijah believed all that he told her and with great respect said: ‘Be happy, O son of my uncle and be confident. Truly I swear by Allah who has my soul in His hands, that you will be our people’s Prophet.’ Muhammad (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah, was eased by her faith in him, but after all that had happened he was exhausted and felt fast asleep.
Khadijah left the Prophet (pbuh) sleeping and went to see her cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal, to ask him what he thought about all that had happened. Waraqah was a very wise man who had read many books and had become a Christian after studying the Bible. He told Khadijah that Muhammad (pbuh) had been chosen by Allah to be His Messenger. Just as the Archangel Gabriel had come to Moses before and had ordered him to guide his people, so, too, would Muhammad (pbuh) be the Prophet of his people. But Waraqah warned that all the people would not listen to the Prophet and some would mistreat his followers. He must, however, be patient because he had a great message for all the world.
From that day on, the Archangel Gabriel came often to the Prophet (pbuh) and the verses he taught him, the message from Allah to man, were later written down, and are known to us as the Holy Koran.
AFTER that momentous day in the month of Ramadan, Revelation came again and again to the Prophet (pbuh). He understood now what he had to do and prepared himself for what was to come. Only a strong and brave man, helped by Allah, can be a true prophet because people often refuse to listen to Allah’s message.
Khadijah was the first to believe the Prophet (pbuh) and accept as
true what he brought from Allah. Through her, Allah made things easier for the Prophet (pbuh). Khadijah strengthened him, helped him spread his message, and stood up to the people who were against him.
Then Revelation ceased for a time. The Prophet (pbuh) was upset and unhappy, thinking that Allah had left him, or that he might have angered Allah in some way so that Allah no longer thought him worthy of His message. However, the Archangel Gabriel came back to him and brought this surah, or chapter, of the Koran:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
By the morning hours
And by the night when it is stillest,
Thy Lord hath neither forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee,
And verily the Last will be better for thee
than the First.
And verily thy Lord will give unto thee so that
thou wilt be content.
Did He not find thee an orphan and protect thee?
Did He not find thee wandering and guide thee?
Did He not find thee destitute and enrich thee?
Therefore the orphan oppress not,
Therefore the beggar drive not away,
And as for thy Lord’s blessing, declare it.
The Prophet (pbuh) began to speak secretly of Allah’s message to those Who were close to him and whom he could trust. At that time Mecca was going through hard times. There was very little food to be had. Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, who had taken care of him after his grandfather’s death, was finding it very difficult to feed his large family. The Prophet (pbuh) said that he and another uncle, al-‘Abbas, who was a rich man, would each bring up one of Abu Talib’s children in order to help him. The Prophet (pbuh) took ‘Ali and his uncle took Ja’far.
One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) was outside the city, the Archangel Gabriel appeared to him. The Archangel kicked the side of a hill and a spring of water began to flow out. He then began to wash himself in the running water to show the Prophet (pbuh) the ritual ablution to be made before prayer.
Then the Archangel showed him all the positions of Muslim prayer-the various movements and things to be said with each movement. The Prophet (pbuh) returned home and taught all these things first to Khadijah and then to his followers. Since then Muslims have continued to purify themselves before prayer by performing the ritual ablution and have followed the same movements and prayers first performed by the Prophet (pbuh).
To begin with, though, only the Prophet (pbuh) and his wife knew of these things. Then one day ‘Ali entered the room and found the Prophet (pbuh) and Khadijah praying. He was puzzled and asked what they were doing. The Prophet (pbuh) explained to him that they were praising Allah and giving thanks to Him. That night ‘Ali stayed up thinking about all that the Prophet (pbuh) had said; he had great admiration and respect for his cousin. Finally he came to a decision and the next day he went to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him that he wanted to follow him. Thus Khadijah was the first woman to embrace Islam, the teachings which the Prophet (pbuh) brought from Allah, and ‘Ali was the first
young man. Shortly after they were joined by Zayd ibn Harithah, a slave, freed and adopted by the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) began to leave Mecca with ‘An in order to pray. One day Abu Talib happened to pass by and when he saw them he stopped and asked them what they were doing. The Prophet (pbuh) told him that they were praying and following the same religion as Abraham. He explained that, like Abraham, he had been ordered to guide the people to Allah’s truth. Abu Talib looked at his son, ‘Ali, and said: ‘Muhammad (pbuh) would never make you do anything that was wrong. Go with him. But I cannot leave the religion I now follow and which was followed by my father.’ Then he turned to the Prophet (pbuh), saying, ‘Even so, I promise you, Muhammad (pbuh), that no one will hurt you as long as I am alive.’ And with that Abu Talib went on his way.
At about this time the news of Muhammad (pbuh) being the Prophet reached an honest, wise, and respected merchant of Mecca called Abu Bakr. He knew Muhammad (pbuh) well and believed he could never lie, so he went to find out for himself if the story were true. The Prophet (pbuh) told him that he had indeed been sent by Allah to teach everyone to worship the one true Allah. On hearing this from the Prophet’s own lips Abu Bakr knew it to be the truth and became a believer instantly. Later the Prophet (pbuh) was reported to have said that everyone he ever invited to accept Islam showed signs of disbelief and doubt, except Abu Bakr; when he was told of it he did not hold back or hesitate.
Because of his wisdom, honesty, and kindness people had always turned to Abu Bakr for advice. He was, therefore, a man of some influence and through him many people came to Islam. Among these was Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas as, the uncle of Aminah, the Prophet’s mother. The night before Abu Bakr came to visit him and tell him about Islam, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas dreamt that he was walking in darkness. As he walked he saw the moon and when he looked at it he saw ‘Ali, Abu Bakr, and Zayd, the Prophet’s freed slave, beckoning to him to come and join them. Whe at home. Abu Bakr talked to the slave about Islam and before he left, Bilal, too, had become a Muslim.
The number of people following the Prophet (pbuh) began to grow. Sometimes they would all go out of the city to the mountains around Mecca to hear him recite the Koran and to be taught by him. This was all done very secretly and only a very few people knew about Islam in those early days.
THREE years passed and one day the Archangel Gabriel came to the Prophet (pbuh) and ordered him to start preaching openly to everyone. So the Prophet (pbuh) told the people of Mecca that he had something very important to tell them. He stood on a hillside in Mecca, called Safa, and they gathered around to hear what he had to say.
He started by asking them if they would believe him were he to say that an army was about to attack them. They answered that indeed they would, because he never lied. He then told them that he was the Messenger of Allah, sent to show them the right way, and to warn them of terrible punishments if they did not follow him in worshipping only Allah and none other. Abu Lahab, one of the Prophet’s uncles who was among the listeners, suddenly stood up and said, ‘May you perish! Did you call us here just to tell us this?’ At this, Allah sent to the Prophet (pbuh) the following surah:
In the Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful
The Power of Abu Lahab will perish,
and he will perish. His wealth and gains will not save him.
He shall roast at a flaming fire, And his wife, the carrier of firewood.
Will have upon her neck a rope of palm-fibre.
Then the crowd dispersed and the Prophet (pbuh) was left alone.
A few days later the Prophet (pbuh) tried again. A feast was prepared in his house for all of his uncles. After the meal he spoke to them and said, ‘O sons of ‘Abd al-Muttalib! I know of no Arab who has come to his people with a better message than mine. I have brought you the best news for this life and the next.
Allah has ordered me to call you to Him. So which of you will help me?’ All the men kept silent. Then ‘Ali, his cousin, jumped up and said: ‘O
Prophet of Allah! I will help you.’ Then the men all got up and left, laughing as they went because only one young boy had agreed to help the Prophet (pbuh).
His message ignored by most of the people and his uncles, the Prophet (pbuh) continued to meet his friends secretly in a house near the hill of Safa. There they prayed together and he taught them about the religion of Islam. But even though they kept to themselves, they were sometimes abused by those who would not believe. From one such incident, however, an unexpected conversion to Islam took place. One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) was returning home, speaking with his followers, he met Abu Jahl, a leader of Quraysh, who hated the Prophet (pbuh) and his teachings. Abu Jahl started to insult him and to speak spitefully of Islam, but the Prophet (pbuh) made no reply and went on his way.
Later, Hamzah, one of the Prophet’s uncles, who was a strong and brave warrior of whom people were quite afraid, heard how his nephew had been insulted. Filled with rage, he ran straight to the Ka’bah where Abu Jahl was sitting among the people and struck him a violent blow in the face with his bow. Hamzah then shouted, ‘Will you insult him when I follow his religion, and I say what he says? Hit me back if you can!’ Some people got up to help Abu Jahl but he stopped them saying, ‘Leave Hamzah alone, for by Allah, I have insulted his nephew badly.’
From that moment on Hamzah followed the teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) and with his conversion to Islam Quraysh realized that the Prophet (pbuh) had a strong supporter and so for a while they stopped persecuting him.
Soon, however, the leaders of Quraysh became angry again, when they saw that the Prophet (pbuh) was going ahead with his teaching. A group of them went to his uncle, Abu Talib, who had promised to protect him. They told him to ask the Prophet (pbuh) to stop attacking their gods and their way of life, and in return they would let him do as he wished with his religion.
After a time they saw that there was no change, so they went back to Abu Talib and this time they told him that if he did not stop his nephew, they would fight them both. Abu Talib was very upset by this quarrel among his people, but he could not break his word to his nephew. He sent for the Prophet (pbuh) and told him what had happened, saying, ‘Spare me and spare yourself; do not put a greater burden on me than I can bear.’
The Prophet (pbuh) thought that his uncle might abandon him and that he would no longer have his support, but nevertheless he answered, ‘O my uncle, by Allah, if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left in return for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up until Allah makes Truth victorious, or I die in His service.
Abu Talib was deeply moved by this answer. He told the Prophet (pbuh) that he would support him for as long as he lived and encouraged him to go on spreading Allah’s message. From that time on, however hard the leaders of Quraysh tried to convince Abu Talib to stop protecting his nephew, he always refused to listen to them.
In order to get rid of the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers, his enemies started persecuting those Muslims who were poor or weak, or had no powerful friends. One such person was Bilal, the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. His master would take him out into the desert, tie him up, and leave him in the sun with a large stone on his chest. Fortunately Abu Bakr was passing by one day and saw Umayyah torturing Bilal, so he bought him from his master for a large sum of money and then set him free.
But not all persecuted Muslims were as fortunate as Bilal. Many suffered, but all of them endured it patiently, knowing that they were doing the right thing and that their reward in the life to come would be greater’ than any happiness they could find on earth.
As the number of the Prophet’s followers increased so the enemies of the Muslims grew more and more angry. At last some of the Muslims decided to go to another country in order to live in peace. It was only five years since the Archangel Gabriel had first come to the Prophet (pbuh) and two years since the Prophet (pbuh) had spoken out in public. The Muslims asked the Prophet (pbuh) to allow them to leave Mecca. He agreed, saying ‘It would be better for you to go to Abyssinia. The king there is a just man and it is a friendly country. Stay there until Allah makes it possible for you to return.
The Muslims prepared for the journey. They decided to wait until
night so that they could leave without being seen. The first sixteen left Mecca and, after reaching the shore of die Red Sea, crossed over to Abyssinia. Another eighty-three men and nineteen women followed, all hoping to be welcomed by the king and people of that country. This was the first hijrah, or migration, in Islam.
The Meccans were furious when they discovered that these Muslims had secretly left the city for among them were the sons and daughters of many of the leading families of Mecca. The anger of the Meccans was even greater when they found out that the Muslims had been warmly welcomed in Abyssinia.
The leaders of Quraysh decided to send two men to the Abyssinian king in hopes of persuading him to send the Muslims back. These were ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, a very clever speaker, and ‘Abd Allah ibn abi Rabi’ah. Before they met this king, they gave each of his advisers a gift, saying:
‘Some foolish men from our people have come to hide in your country. Our leaders have sent us to your ruler to persuade him to send them back, so when we speak to the king about them, do advise him to give them up to us.’ The advisers agreed to do what the Meccans wished.
Amr ibn al-‘As and ‘Abd Allah ibn abi Rabi’ah then went to the king and presented him also with a gift, saying: ‘Your Highness, these people have abandoned the religion we have always followed in Mecca, but they have not even become Christians like you.’
The royal advisers, who were also present, told the king that the Meccans had spoken the truth and that he should send the Muslims back to their own people. At this, the king became angry and said, ‘No, by God, I will not give them up. Those who have come to ask for my protection, settled in my country, and chosen me rather than others, shall not be betrayed. I will summon them and ask them about what these two men have said. If the Muslims are as the Meccans say, I will give them up and send them back to their own people, but if the Meccans have lied I will protect the Muslims.’ ‘Amr was very upset by this for the last thing he wanted was for the king to hear what the Muslims had to say. The king then sent for the Muslims. When they entered, they did not kneel before him as was the custom of the Abyssinians.
‘Why do you not kneel before our king?’ they were asked by one of the advisors. ‘We kneel only to Allah’, they replied. So the king asked them to tell him about their religion. Ja’far ibn abi Talib, Ali’s brother and a cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), was chosen to speak for the Muslims. He replied, ‘O King, at first we were among the ignorant. We and our ancestors had turned from the faith of Abraham, who, with Ishmael, rebuilt the Ka’bah and worshipped only Allah. We used idols in our worship of Allah; we ate meat that had not been killed in the right way; we did not respect the rights of our neighbors; the strong took advantage of the weak. We did terrible things of which I dare not speak. This was our life until Allah sent a Messenger from among us, one of our relatives, whom we have always known to be honest, innocent, and faithful. He asked us to worship only Allah, and to give up the bad customs of our forefathers. He asked us to be truthful and trustworthy, to respect and help our neighbors, to honor our families, and to put a stop to our bad deeds and endless fighting. He asked us to look after orphans. He ordered us not to slander or speak evil of women or men. He ordered us to worship Allah alone and not to worship anyone or anything else alongside Him. He ordered us to pray, to give alms, and to fast. We believe he is right and therefore we follow him and do as he has commanded us. The Meccans began to attack us and come between us and our religion. So we had to leave our homes and we have come to you, hoping to find justice.’ The king, who was a Christian, was moved by these words. ‘Amr had to think quickly of a way to win the argument. Cunningly he said to the king, ‘These people do not believe in Jesus in the same way as you’.
The king then wanted to know what the Prophet (pbuh) had said about Jesus. Ja’far replied by reciting a surah from the Koran which tells the story of Jesus and his mother Mary. These are a few of the lines he recited:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
And make mention of Mary in the Scripture,
when she had Withdrawn from her people to an eastern place,
And had chosen seclusion from them.
Then We sent unto her Our spirit and it assumed
for her the likeness of a perfect man.
She said: Lo! I seek refuge in the Beneficent One from thee,
if Thou fearest God. He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord,
that I may bestow on thee a faultless son.
She said: How can I have a son when no mortal hath touched me,
neither have I been unchaste?
He said: ‘Even so thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me.
And (it will be) that We may make of him revelation for mankind and a mercy from Us, and it is a thing ordained.
And she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a far place.
Then she brought him to her own folk, carrying him.
They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with an monstrous thing.
Oh sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man nor was thy mother a harlot. Then Mary pointed to the child (Jesus);
But they said, ‘How can we speak to one who is still in the cradle,
a young child?’ He said, ‘Lo, I am Allah’s servant;
He has given me the Book, and made me a Prophet.
He has made me Blessed, wheresoever I may be;
and He has enjoined me to pray, and to give alms, so long as I live,
and likewise to cherish my mother; he has not made me arrogant,
unblest Peace be upon me, the day I was born, and the day I die,
and the day I am raised up alive!’
When the king heard this, his eyes filled with tears. Turning to his advisers, he said, ‘These words have surely come from God; there is very little to separate the Muslims from the Christians. What both Jesus and Muhammad, the Messengers of Allah, have brought comes from the same source.
So the Muslims were given the king’s permission to live peacefully in his country. ‘Amr was given back the gift he had presented to the king and the two Meccans returned home, bitterly disappointed.
HE leaders of Quraysh became increasingly worried about the way the people of Mecca were being divided by the Prophet’s teachings. Finally, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, one of the nobles of Mecca, decided that the only way to silence the Prophet (pbuh) was to kill him. Having made up his mind, he set out at once to look for him.
On his way he met a man who saw at once what ‘Umar was going to do and said: ‘Why don’t you look a little closer to home before going to kill Muhammad? Don’t you know your own sister Fatimah is a Muslim?’
‘Umar was shocked. He could not believe this was true. He went at once to his sister’s house. When he arrived outside the house he heard Fatimah and her husband Sa’id reading aloud surah Ta Ha, a chapter from the Koran. Hearing her brother’s voice at the door, Fatimah quickly hid the scroll with the surah written on it among the folds of her dress. ‘Umar stormed into the room and demanded, ‘What is this nonsense I heard?’ Fatimah denied everything.
‘Umar then lost his temper and attacked Fatimah’s husband shouting, ‘They tell me that you have joined Muhammad in his religion!’ Fatimah tried to defend her husband and ‘Umar hit her too.
Then she admitted, ‘Yes, we are Muslims and we believe in Allah and His Messenger and you can do what you like!’ Seeing her faith and courage, ‘Umar suddenly felt sorry for what he had done and said to his sister, ‘Let me see what I heard you reading just now so that I may understand just what it is that your Prophet has brought.
Fatimah gave the scroll to him after he had washed to make himself clean and pure before touching it, and had promised to give it back to her afterwards.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Ta Ha. We have not revealed unto thee (Muhammad) this Koran.
For thee to be distressed, but only as a reminder.
Unto him who fears a Revelation from.
Him who created the earth and the high heavens;
the Beneficent One; Who is established on the Throne;
To Him belongs Whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth.
And all that is between them, and All that is underneath the soil.
If Thou speakest aloud. Be thou loud in thy speech,
yet Surely He knows the secret (thought).
And that yet more hidden.
Allah There is no god but
He To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names.
As he read, ‘Umar suddenly knew that these were the most beautiful words he had ever heard and that this religion must be the true one. With his sword still in hand, he went straight to the Prophet’s house and knocked loudly at the door. One of the Prophet’s closest followers looked out. There stood ‘Umar who was known for his courage and strength. When he saw ‘Umar so excited and with his sword in hand, he was afraid for the Prophet’s life. But the Prophet (pbuh) asked him to allow ‘Umar to come in and to leave them alone together.
The Prophet (pbuh) asked ‘Umar why he had come, to which he replied: ‘I have come to swear that there is no god but Allah and that you, Muhammad, are the Messenger of Allah.’ As he spoke these words, his hand still held the sword with which he had intended to kill the Prophet (pbuh). This same sword’ would now be used to defend the Prophet (pbuh) and the faith of Islam.
At that time, whenever Muslims wanted to perform the ritual encircling of the Ka’bah, known as tawaf they had to do it secretly and in fear. ‘Umar, however, was very courageous. As soon as he had declared his faith, he went directly to the Ka’bah and in broad daylight made the circling of the Sacred House before the astonished people of Mecca. No one dared to say anything. But now the leaders of Quraysh became even more alarmed and began to see Islam as a threat to the whole life of the city of Mecca. They grew more and more furious as the numbers of Muslims increased until finally they, too, decided as ‘Umar once had, that the Prophet (pbuh) would have to be killed.
On hearing of these plans, Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, immediately sent a message to all the sons of ‘Abd al-Muttalib, asking them to protect their nephew, and this they agreed to do. When Quraysh realized that they could not kill the Prophet (pbuh) because of this protection, they decided instead to avoid him and his followers completely. A declaration to this effect was hung at the Ka’bah. It stated that no one in the city was allowed to have anything to do with the Prophet (pbuh) and his people, or even to sell them any food or drink
At first the Muslims found some support among the Bani Hashim, the branch of Quraysh to which the Prophet (pbuh) belonged. Some of these people were not Muslims but showed loyalty to their kinsmen by suffering along with them. However, life grew more and more difficult and food was scarce. The hatred of the rest of Quraysh for the followers of the Prophet (pbuh) grew so great that when his companions tried to buy supplies from a caravan passing near to Mecca, Abu Lahab, one of the Muslims’ worst enemies, offered ten times the price of the goods to the merchant. By doing this he managed to stop the Muslims, from buying what they desperately needed.
During the years of this terrible treatment, a wonderful thing happened. Instead Of Islam becoming weaker, it grew stronger. Allah sent more and more Revelations. It was as though the Muslims were being strengthened and cleansed by the hardships they suffered and were being tested in their faith.
Each year at the time of the pilgrimage to Mecca, people tame from all over Arabia. These pilgrims saw the terrible cruelty and injustice of Quraysh towards the Muslims, and many of them were sorry for the Prophet’s followers. Quraysh began to feel ashamed of their harsh treatment, especially as many of the Muslims were their cousins and close relatives.
Finally, at the end of three years, they were convinced that the time had come to put an end to the persecution of the Muslims, and they decided to take down the notice hanging at the Ka’bah. To their astonishment, the sheet of paper had been completely eaten up by worms, all except the words, ‘In Your Name, O Allah’, which had been written at the top of the paper.
IN Yathrib there were two main tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj. Both were very powerful, they were always at war with one another, and both worshipped idols. Also in Yathrib were many Jews who, unlike the Arab at that time, knew that there was only One God, and worshipped Him. They had told the Arabs many times that a Prophet would be coming to them.
The time came for the pilgrimage to the Ka’bah, and several people from Yathrib were going, among them six men from the tribe of Khazraj. They had heard about the Prophet Muhammad’s preaching and thought that must be the Prophet the Jews had told them about. So they decided to go speak to him during their stay in Mecca.
They met the Prophet (pbuh) at a spot known as ‘Aqabah, near Mecca, and invited them to sit with him. He explained to them what Islam meant recited to them from the Koran. When they heard the Koran recited touched their hearts so deeply that they became Muslims and on leaving Mecca they promised to return the following year. When they reached Yathrib carrying Islam in their hearts, they told their relatives and friends what they had heard from the Prophet (pbuh) and many more people became Muslims.
A year passed and the pilgrimage season came around again. Twelve important men from Yathrib went to Mecca to meet the Prophet (pbuh) and promised faithfully to serve him and Islam. In return, the Prophet (pbuh) sent one of his friends, Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr, with them to teach the Koran and instruct them in their new religion.
Another year passed and still more Muslims came from Yathrib to Mecca for the pilgrimage. On this occasion a secret meeting with the Prophet (pbuh) was arranged to be held at night. Seventy-three men and one woman from Yathrib came, and the Prophet (pbuh) arrived with his uncle, al-‘Abbas. During this meeting the men from Yathrib offered to protect and defend the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers if they would come to live in Yathrib. This promise of protection came to be known as the Treaty of ‘Aqabah.
The treaty was most fortunate for even though Islam was growing in Yathrib, the Muslims in Mecca were still suffering. The Prophet (pbuh) therefore told his friends and followers to go to Yathrib where they would be safe, and most of them took this opportunity to leave.
Despite all this suffering the Prophet (pbuh) was not allowed to fight his enemies, for Allah had told him to forgive those who insulted him or would not listen to his message. But the Quraysh had closed their minds so utterly to the word of Allah, and grew so hard-hearted towards the Prophet (pbuh)and his followers, that Allah gave permission to the Prophet (pbuh) to fight those who tried to harm him or his companions.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Permission is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged;
And Allah is surely able to give them victory;
Those who have been driven from their homes unjustly only because they said: Our Lord is Allah.
Quraysh began to fear the Prophet (pbuh) for they realized that he was now strong enough to fight them and had been given leave to do so by Allah. They also knew that he now had the people of Yathrib to help and protect him. Seeing that the Muslims were leaving the city, they decided to kill the Prophet (pbuh), before he, too, left Mecca to join his followers in Yathrib. In this way they hoped to put an end to Islam once and for all.
The Breaking of All Connections with One’s Home,
for the Sake of Allah Alone.
AFTER his companions had left for Yathrib, the Prophet (pbuh) stayed in Mecca, waiting for permission from Allah to leave the city. Abu Bakr and Ali stayed with him. There were also some Muslims whom Quraysh had not allowed to leave. Abu Bakr kept asking the Prophet (pbuh) to allow him to go to Yathrib, but the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) kept saying, ‘Do not be in a hurry; it might be that Allah will give you a travelling companion.’
The leaders of Quraysh assembled in the house of their ancestor, Qusayy, as was customary when they had an important decision to make. They had to find a way of getting rid of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), before he was able to join his friends in Yathrib.
As they were busy arguing, the Devil appeared at the door in the form of a noble and handsome old man. When they saw this elderly gentleman standing there, they asked him who he was. He said he was a sheikh from the mountains who had heard what they meant to do and thought he might be able to help or advise them. They thought he looked like a wise man, so they invited him in.
Each leader then started to put forward ideas about what should be done, but none of them could agree about which was best, until Abu-Jahl told them his plan. This was that each clan should provide a strong, young warrior, each of whom would be given a sword. All the young warriors would then wait outside the Prophet’s house and together attack him as he came out. In this way they would be rid of him but as the blame for killing him would fall on all the clans, the Prophet’s family would not be able to seek revenge.
When he heard this, the Devil in the disguise of the old man, said, ‘That man is right; in my opinion it is the only thing to do!’ The leaders of Quraysh then left to carry out their plan to murder the Prophet (pbuh).
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
And when the unbelievers plot, against thee, to confine thee, or kill thee,
or to drive thee out, they were plotting,
But Allah was (also) plotting; and Allah is the best of plotters.
Before the night fell, on which Muhammad (pbuh) was to be killed, the Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, ‘Do not sleep tonight in your own bed.’ The Prophet (pbuh) understood what was going to happen, so he told ‘Ali to lie in his bed and wrap himself in the blanket that the Prophet (pbuh) normally used, promising that no harm would befall him.
With the coming of darkness the young men of Quraysh had gathered outside the Prophet’s house, waiting for him to come out. After he had made sure that ‘Ali was safe, the Prophet (pbuh) left the house. At that very moment Allah took away the sight of the warriors so that they could not see the Prophet (pbuh), who took a handful of dust, sprinkled it on their heads and recited these verses:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Ya SinBy the Wise Koran,
Thou art truly among those sent.
On the straight path;
A Revelation of the All-mighty, the All-wise,
That thou may warn a people whose fathers
were never warned, so they are heedless.
The Word has already proved true of most of them, yet they do not believe.
Lo! We have put on their necks collars of iron up to the chin,
so that they are made stiff-necked.
And We have put before them a barrier; and
We have covered them so they do not see.
The young men waited the whole night and were furious when, in the morning, they saw ‘Ali instead of the Prophet (pbuh) coming out of the house. I They realized that their plan had failed completely. In the meantime, the Prophet (pbuh) went to Abu Bakr’s house and told him,’Allah has told me that now is the time for us to leave Mecca.’ ‘Together?’ asked Abu Bakr. ‘Together’, the Prophet (pbuh) replied.
Abu Bakr wept for joy, because now he knew that the travelling companion he had been promised was the Prophet (pbuh) himself. Then he said,’O Messenger of Allah, these are the two camels which I have kept ready for this.’ And so, the two of them left for a cave in Thawr, a mountain to the south of Mecca where they intended to hide.
When they were out of the city the Prophet (pbuh) looked back and said, ‘Of all Allah’s earth, you are the dearest place to Allah and to me and if my people had not driven me out I would never have left you.’ When Quraysh found out that the Prophet (pbuh) and his companion hadgone, they set out after them, searching in every direction. Three days later they finally reached the cave where the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr were hiding, but a strange and wonderful thing had happened. A spider had woven its web right across the entrance to the cave and a dove was nesting with her mate nearby. As the Meccans stood in front of the cave, with only the spider’s web separating them from the fugitives, Abu Bakr began to fear for their safety. He whispered to the Prophet (pbuh), ‘They are very close. If one of them turns we will be seen. ‘But he was comforted by the Prophet’s reply: ‘What do you think of two who have with them Allah as their third?’
Grieve not, for verily Allah is with us.
After a few moments the search parry decided that no one could have entered the cave recently, or the spider’s web would not have been complete and the dove would not have nested there, and so they left without searching inside. Three days later the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr thought it safe to leave the cave. Abu Bakr’s son, ‘Amir, had arranged for three camels and a guide to help them continue their journey to Yathrib. ‘Amir would ride behind his father. The leaders of Quraysh, meanwhile, returned to Mecca and offered a reward of one hundred camels to whoever captured the Prophet (pbuh). Among those who went in search of him was a famous warrior. He was, in fact, the only one to catch up with him, but whenever he came close, his horse would suddenly sink up to its knees in the sand. When this had happened three times, he understood that the Prophet (pbuh) was protected by a power stronger than anything he had known, and so he went back to Mecca. On arriving there he warned everyone against continuing the search, relating what had happened to him.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
if you do not help him, still Allah has helped him already,
When the unbelievers drove him forth,
(he second of two, When the two were in the Cave,
when he said to his companion, “Grieve not; surely Allah is with us.”
Then Allah caused His peace and Reassurance to descend upon him,
And helped him with hosts you cannot see,
And He made the word of the unbelievers the lowest;
While Allah’s word is the uppermost; Allah is All-mighty, All-wise.
The Prophet’s journey from Mecca is called the hijrah, or migration. It was really the first step towards the spread of Islam throughout the entire world, and Muslims begin their calendar from the year of the hijrah.
WHEN the people of Yathrib heard that the Prophet (pbuh) had left Mecca and was on his way to their city, they anxiously awaited his arrival. Each morning they would go to the edge of the city to see if he were coming. Finally, on Monday, September 27, in the year 622 A.D., someone saw him in the distance and shouted to everyone, ‘Here is Muhammad! (pbuh) the Messenger of Allah has arrived!’ All the Muslims went out to greet him, shouting, “Allahu Akbar”! Allah is Great! Muhammad the Messenger of Allah has arrived!’ The women and children sang songs to show how glad they were to see him.
The Prophet (pbuh) entered the city with his friend Abu Bakr. Most of. The people there had not seen him before and as they gathered around they did not know which of the two was the Prophet (pbuh), until Abu Bakr got up to shield him with his cloak from the burning sun. Yathrib would now be Called al-Medina, which means, The City.
The Messenger of God (pbuh) stayed in Quba’, which is a place at the entrance of Medina, for three days. On the first Friday after his arrival the Prophet led the congregation in prayer. After this many of the wealthiest men invited him to come and live with them and share their riches. But he refused and, pointing to his she-camel, Qaswa’, said, ‘Let her go her way’, because he knew that his camel was under Allah’s command and would guide him to the spot where he should stay. They let the camel go until she finally knelt down beside a house belonging to the Bani an-Najjar, the tribe to whom the Prophet’s mother was related. This house was used as a drying-place for dates and belonged to two young orphan boys named Sahl and Suhayl. They offered to give it to the Prophet (pbuh) but he insisted on paying them for it, and so their guardian, As’ad the son of Zurarah, who was present, made the necessary arrangements.
The Prophet (pbuh) ordered that a mosque and a place for him to live be built on the site. All the Muslims worked together to finish it quickly-even the Prophet (pbuh) joined in. It was here that the Muslims would pray and meet to make important decisions and plans. The building was quite plain and simple. The floor was beaten earth and the roof of palm leaves was held up by tree trunks. Two Stones marked the direction of prayer. At first worshippers faced Jerusalem, but Soon after the direction of prayer was changed towards the Ka’bah in Mecca.
After the building of the mosque, the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to strengthen the relationship between the people called the Muhajirah or Emigrants, who had left Mecca with him, and the people of Medina, who were known as the Ansar, or Helpers. Each man from Medina took as his brother a man from Mecca, sharing everything with him and treating him as a member of his own family. This was the beginning of the Islamic brotherhood.
In the early days of Islam, the times for prayer were not announced and So the Muslims would come to the mosque and wait for the prayer so as not to miss it. The Prophet (pbuh) wondered how to tell the people that it was time for prayers. He discussed it with his friends, and at first two ideas were put forward; that of blowing a horn as the Jews did, and that of using a wooden clapper like the Christians. Then a man called ‘Abd Allah ibn Zayd came to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him he had had a dream in which he had seen a man dressed all in green, holding a wooden clapper. He had said to the man, ‘Would you sell me your clapper in order to call the people to prayer?’ The man had replied, ‘A better way to call the people to prayer is to Say:
“Allahu Akbar, Allah is Most Great!” four times, followed by
“I bear witness that there is no divinity but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Come to prayer, come to prayer,
Come to salvation, come to salvation. Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar!
There is no divinity but Allah!”
When the Prophet (pbuh) heard this, he said it was a true vision from Allah. He sent for Bilal, who had a beautiful, strong voice, and ordered him to call the people to prayer in just this way. Bilal did so and soon after ‘Umar came out of his house and told the Prophet (pbuh) that he had seen exactly the same vision himself. The Prophet (pbuh) replied, ‘Allah be praised for that.’
The adhan, or call to prayer, which came to ‘Abd Allah ibn Zayd in his dream and was performed by Bilal on the instruction of the Prophet (pbuh), is the one we still hear today being called from the minarets of mosques all over the world.
THE Muslims who had gone to Medina, had left all their belongings behind in Mecca and these had been taken by their enemies. Thus, when the Muslims heard that Abu Sufyan, one of the leaders of Quraysh, was on his way back to Mecca from Syria with a large caravan of goods, they decided that the time had come for them to retrieve some of their losses. The Prophet (pbuh) gave the Muslims permission for this attack and everyone began to get ready for the raid, for it had been revealed:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Permission to fight is given unto those who
fight because they have been wronged;
and Allah is surely able to give them victory;
The Revelation had mentioned that a thing most serious with Allah was
to turn (men) from the way of Allah, and to
disbelieve in Him and in the Holy Mosque,
and to drive his people from there…for persecution
is worse than killing.
The retrieval of their goods, however, was not their only reason for
wanting to attack the caravan. The Muslims did not think they should simply remain safely in Medina; they wanted to spread the message of Islam.
They thus felt that if Quraysh wanted freedom to trade in safety, then the Muslims must also have freedom to believe in Allah, to follow His Messenger (pbuh), and spread His Word. It was, therefore, thought that the best, and only way to get Quraysh to understand this was to attack what was most important to them-a caravan.
Abu Sufyan, in the meantime, heard about the Muslims’ plan and
Quickly sent a message to Quraysh in Mecca, telling them that the caravan was in danger and asking for help. As a result nearly all Quraysh came out to help him defend the caravan. There were a thousand men and two hundred horses. The women also went along to cheer the men on with their singing.
Unaware of this, the Prophet (pbuh) set out with his followers. It was the month of Ramadan and the Muslims were fasting. There were only three hundred and five of them, most of them Ansar, men from Medina. With them they had three horses and seventy camels, on which they rode in turns.
They arrived in the area of Badr, some distance from Medina where they made camp and waited for news of the caravan. Then they heard that Quraysh had set out from Mecca with a strong army. The situation had suddenly changed. They were no longer going to make a raid on a caravan-they were going to have to fight Quraysh.
The Prophet (pbuh) gathered his men around him to find out what they wanted to do. First Abu Bakr, and then ‘Umar, spoke for the Muslims who had come from Mecca. They said they would obey the Prophet (pbuh). But the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to hear the opinion of the Ansar, because he did not want to force them into doing something they did not want to do.
Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, one of the leaders of the Ansar, got up and said, we believe in you and we swear before all men that what you have brought is the truth. We have given you our word and agreement to hear and obey. So go where you wish, we are with you even if you should lead us into the sea!
The Prophet (pbuh) was greatly encouraged by these words and so it was agreed to fight. Abu Sufyan learned where the Muslims were camped. He changed the course of the caravan and quickly took it out of their reach. He then sent word to Quraysh telling them that the caravan was safe and that they should return to Mecca. But the leaders of Quraysh were proud and stubborn men. They refused to return as they had made up their minds to show everyone how powerful they were by destroying the Muslims.
Now there was a wadi, or valley, at Badr, with wells on the side nearest Medina, and it was here that the Muslims took up position facing the valley with the wells behind them. Quraysh meanwhile placed themselves on the other side of the valley. The Muslims then dug a reservoir, filled it with water from one of the wells, and made a barrier around it. Then they stopped up the wells. In this way the Muslims had enough drinking water for themselves, while the Meccans would have to cross the valley and fight the Muslims in order to get water. The night before the battle, while the Muslims slept peacefully, a heavy rain fell.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
When He made the slumber fall upon you as
a reassurance from Him and sent down water from the sky upon you,
in order that He might purify you, and remove from you the fear of Satan,
and strengthen your hearts and make firm (your) fret thereby.
On the morning of Friday, the 17th of Ramadan, 2 A.H., (March 17th, A.D.), the two armies advanced and drew closer to one another. The rain been heavier on the side of Quraysh, making the ground soft and difficult. On the side of the Muslims, however, the rain had backed the sand down hard, making it easy for them to march. The Prophet (pbuh) preferred the men to fight in ranks. As they prepared to march he noticed someone had stepped out in front of the others. The Prophet (pbuh)prodded him in the side with an arrow, saying, ‘Stand in line!’
The man, Sawad, exclaimed, ‘You have hurt me, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has sent you to be just and good.’ Prophet (pbuh) lifted his shirt and said, ‘Then do the same to me. The man approached and kissed him on the spot instead, saying, ‘O Messenger of Allah, you see what is before us and I may not survive the battle. If this is my last time with you, I want the last thing I do in life to be this.’
Shortly after he went into battle, Sawad died a martyr. Having examined the ranks, the Prophet (pbuh) then went to a shelter made of palm branches from which he could command the battle. Abu Bakr stayed with him, while Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, with several of the Ansar, stood outside guarding the hut. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw the enormous Quraysh army descending the hill into the valley, with all their banners and drums, he began to pray for the help which Allah had promised him. These were some of his words. ‘O Allah, here come Quraysh full of vanity and pride, who oppose Thee and call Thy Messenger a liar. O Allah, if this little band (the Muslims) perishes today, there will be none left in the land to worship Thee.’
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
When ye sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying):
I will help you with a thousand of the angels, rank on rank.
Allah appointed it only as good tidings,
and that your hearts might thereby be at ease.
Victory cometh only by the help of Allah. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.
(Koran viii. 9-10)
At first the battle began in single combat when one of Quraysh swore that he would drink from the Muslims’ reservoir and then destroy it, or die in the attempt. Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, came forward to face him and killed him. Three of the most important men of Quraysh then stepped forward and gave out a challenge for single combat. The Prophet (pbuh) sent out ‘Ali, Hamzah, and ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Harith, to face them. It was not long before Hamzah and ‘Ali had killed their opponents. As for ‘Ubaydah, he had wounded his enemy but was wounded himself, and so his two companions killed the wounded Meccan and carried ‘Ubaydah back to the safety of the Muslim ranks.
After this, the two armies attacked each other and fighting broke out all around. The sky was filled with arrows. The Muslim army held its ground against the great army of Quraysh and even though the Muslims were much fewer in number, they gained a great victory, destroying the Meccan army and killing most of its leaders. Among the leading Meccans who died were Abu Jahl and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, who was killed by his former slave, Bilal. Seeing that their leaders were nearly all dead, the remainder of Quraysh retreated.
The Prophet (pbuh) sent word to Medina to tell them of the victory. He then gathered up the spoils of war and divided them equally among the Muslims. Some of the Meccans had been taken prisoner and the Prophet (pbuh) gave orders that they should be treated well until their relatives from among Quraysh came to fetch them.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Ye (M) did slay them, but Allah slew them and thou
(Muhammad) threwest not when thou didst throw,
but Allah threw, so that He might test the believers by a fair test from Him.
Lo! Allah is All-hearing, All-Knowing.
WHEN the survivors of the defeated Quraysh at Badr returned to Mecca gathered to speak with Abu Sufyan. They said, ‘Muhammad has best men, so help us to fight him so that we may avenge those we have lost.’ In order to do this it was agreed that everyone who had had a share in the caravan should put his profits towards the cost of a new army, which would be three times as big as the one at Badr.
Among those who joined the new army was an Abyssinian slave called Wahshi; who was known for his accuracy with the spear. His master, Jubayr ibn al-Mut’im, said to him, ‘Go with the army and if you kill Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad, in revenge for my uncle’s death, I will set you free when Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife, heard about this she sent a Wahshi to say that she would clothe him in gold and silk if he would carry out his master’s wish, for she, too, wanted Hamzah dead because he had killed both her father and brother.
While the Meccans made their plans, the Prophet’s uncle, ^Abbas, one the few Muslims still living in Mecca, sent a letter of warning to the Prophet (pbuh) in Medina. He told him that Quraysh were setting out with a huge arm for Uhud, a place just outside Medina. On receiving this timely warning the Prophet (pbuh) gathered his companions around him to discuss what they should do. He thought it would be better to wait for the enemy inside city rather than go out to meet them, because it would be easier to defend Medina from inside the city walls. But the young Muslims wanted to go out and face Quraysh. They said, ‘O Prophet of Allah, lead us out against our enemies, or else they will think we are too cowardly and too weak to fight them.’
One of the rulers of Medina, ‘Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, however, agreed with the Prophet (pbuh) and advised him to remain in the city, saying, ‘Whenever we have gone out to fight an enemy we have met with disaster, but none has ever come in against us without being defeated.’
But when the Prophet (pbuh) saw that the majority was in favor of going out to meet Quraysh, he decided to do so, and after the Friday prayer he put on his armor. The Muslims then set out with one thousand men in the direction of Mount Uhud which overlooks Medina. The enemy was camped on the plain below the mountain where they were laying waste the crops of the Muslims.
‘Abd Allah ibn Ubayy was angry that the Prophet (pbuh) had not followed his advice and after going part of the way, turned back for Medina, taking one third of the entire army with him. This left the Prophet (pbuh) with only seven hundred men to meet the enormous Meccan army, which numbered three thousand.
The remainder of the Muslims went on until they reached the mountain of Uhud. There the Prophet (pbuh) ordered them to stand in ranks in front of the mountain, so that they would be protected from behind. He then positioned fifty archers on top of the mountain, giving them the following order: ‘Keep the Meccan cavalry away from us with your arrows and don’t let them come against us from the rear, whether the battle goes in our favor or against us. Whatever happens keep to your places so that we cannot be attacked from your direction, even if you see us being slain or booty being taken.’
When the Muslims were in position, the Prophet (pbuh) held up his sword and said, ‘Who will use this sword with its right?’ This was a great honor and many men rose to claim it, but the Prophet (pbuh) decided to give it to Abu Dujanah, a fearless warrior. Then the battle commenced.
The Muslims were well organized and had the advantage, because although Quraysh had more than four times as many men, they were tired from their journey and thus not ready to fight. As a result, the Muslims were able to make a surprise attack, led by Abu Dujanah, who was wearing a brilliant red turban.
As the fighting increased the Quraysh women, led by Hind, began to beat their drums to urge their men on. They called out poems to encourage their men to be brave. If you advance, we hug you, spread soft rugs beneath you; if you retreat, we leave you. Leave and no more love you.’ Abu Dujanah said: ‘I saw someone urging the enemy on, shouting wildly, and I made for him, but when I lifted my sword against him he screamed and I saw that it was a woman; I respected the Apostle’s sword too much to use it on a woman.’ That woman was Hind.
As usual, Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, fought with great courage, but while leading the Muslims in a fierce attack, which nearly defeated the Meccans, he was suddenly and cruelly struck down by the slave Wahshi. Later, Wahshi told how it happened: ‘I was watching Hamzah while he was killing men with his sword. I aimed my spear until I was sure it would hit the mark and hurled it at him. He came on towards me but collapsed and fell. I left him there until he died, then I came and took back my spear. Then I went back to the camp because I did not want to kill anyone but him. My only aim in killing him was to gain my freedom.’
The Quraysh warriors were soon scattered and forced to retreat. It looked as though they had been defeated! Seeing this, forty of the fifty Muslims archers on top of the mountain ran down from their position to collect booty, for the Quraysh army had left many of their belongings behind. The archers rushed to take what they could, forgetting the Prophet’s orders.
Khalid ibn al-Walid, Commander of the Quraysh cavalry, saw what’ happening and quickly turned his men around and ordered them to attack the Muslims from behind. The Muslims were taken completely by surprise. The Quraysh then began attacking from both sides at once. Many Muslims were killed and instead of winning they began to lose the battle. To add to the confusion, it was rumored that the Prophet (pbuh) had killed. When the Muslims heard this they were at a loss to know what to do. Then a man named Anas called out, ‘Brothers! If Muhammad (pbuh) has been killed what will your lives be worth without him? Don’t think about living or dying. Fight for Allah. Get up and die the way Muhammad (pbuh) died!’ and on hearing these words the Muslims took courage.
There had been several cavalry attacks on the position held by the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions and the Prophet’s cheek had been badly gashed. As the Meccans closed in again he called out, ‘Who will sell his life for us?’ At this, five Ansar got up and fought until they were killed, one by one. Their places were soon taken, however, by a number of Muslims who drove off the attackers. Amongst the defending Muslims was Abu Dujanah who put his arms around the Prophet (pbuh) and made himself into a human shield. Throughout the remainder of the battle he held on to the Prophet (pbuh), but as the fighting drew to a close he suddenly let go. Abu Dujanah was dead, killed by the many arrows in his back that had been aimed at the Prophet (pbuh).
With the defeat of the Muslims, Quraysh were at last avenged. As they left the field of battle Abu Sufyan called out to his men, ‘You have done well; victory in war goes by turns-today in exchange for Badr!’ When he heard this, the Prophet (pbuh) told ‘Umar to answer him, saying, ‘Allah is Most High and Most Glorious. We are not equal. Our dead are in Paradise and your dead are in Hell!’ The Muslim soldiers then followed the departing Quraysh part of the way to make sure they were not going to attack Medina.
After the enemy had left, the Prophet (pbuh) made his way around the Battlefield to see the extent of the Muslim losses. Many of the most faithful Muslims had been killed. Among the dead, the Prophet (pbuh) found the body of his closest friend and uncle, Hamzah, who had been killed by the slave, Wahshi. At the sight of this, the Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘There will never be a moment as sad for me as this.’ Hamzah’s sister, Safiyya, came to pray and ask forgiveness for her brother, saying ‘We belong to Allah and to Allah we are returning.’ After the Prophet (pbuh) had prayed over the many dead, he said, ‘I tell you that no one has been wounded Allah’s cause but Allah will remember him and on the Day of Resurrection will raise him from the dead. Look for the one who has lthe Koran and put him in front of his companions in the grave.’ They were buried where they had fallen as martyrs. Of them Allah says:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Do not Think that those, who were killed for Allah’s sake are dead.
Nay, they are alive. With their Lord they have provision.
Jubilant (are they) because of that which Allah hath
bestowed upon them of His bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those that have not yet joined them because they have nothing to fear or grieve over.
It is said that the Prophet (pbuh) swore that no Muslim who had died for his beliefs would want to come back to life for a single hour, even if he could own the whole world, unless he could return and fight for Allah and be killed a second time. The Muslims realized that their defeat had been caused by their disobedience to the Prophet (pbuh). The Koran tells us that the Muslims had been tested by Allah at Uhud and had failed but that Allah forgave them their weakness.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Some of you there are that desire this world,
and some of you there are that desire the next world.
Then He turned you from them, that He might try you; and
He has forgiven you; and Allah is bounteous to the believers.
People living nowadays should learn from the lessons learned by the early Muslims at Uhud. Disobedience to the Prophet (pbuh) and love for the things of this world caused their defeat. The same can happen to us as well. Even if we have no battle like Uhud to fight, we can still die for Allah’s sake by fighting what is bad in ourselves. When the Prophet (pbuh) came back from a battle he said to his men, ‘We have returned from the lesser jihad (struggle) to the greater jihad.’ He meant by this that the struggle that goes on within every human being to become a better person is the more difficult battle.
WHEN the Prophet (Pbuh) first arrived in Medina, the Jews who were living there had welcomed him. The Prophet (Pbuh) had returned their greeting, as he wished to be on good terms with them. An agreement was also reached between the Muslims and the Jews, which gave the Jews the freedom to practice their religion and which also set out their rights and their duties. Among these duties was that in the case of war with Quraysh, the Jews would fight on the side of the Muslims.
Despite this agreement, however, some of the Jewish tribes, who resented the Prophet’s presence in Medina, soon began to cause trouble amongst the Muslims. They tried to set the Muslim Emigrants from Mecca and the Ansar against each other. The troublemakers were given many warnings but they continued to be a nuisance. In the end, the Muslims had no choice but to drive them from Medina. A new agreement was offered those Jews who remained but the trouble did not end there. One of the Jewish tribes, the Bani Nadir plotted to murder the Prophet (Pbuh) but their plan was discovered and they, too, were exiled from the city. Knowing that they could not defeat the Muslims themselves, some of the leaders of the exiled Jews secretly went to Mecca to enlist the help of Quraysh. Knowing what the Meccans would like to hear, they pretended to believe in the same things. They said that they thought that the old Arab tradition was better than the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) and that they believed that the Quraysh religion of worshipping many idols was better than the Prophet’s with only one God. Then the Jews told them that if all the Arab tribes attacked Medina, the Jews inside the city would help to defeat the Prophet (Pbuh) and Islam once and for all.
The leaders of Quraysh were pleased to hear all this and seizing on what seemed to them a very good opportunity, agreed to the plan and began to gather together a formidable army. In the meantime in Medina, only one Jewish tribe, the Bani Quraydhah, refused to betray the Muslims.
Eventually the Muslims learned of the preparations being made for war in Mecca and of the plotting of the Jews within Medina itself. The betrayal of the Muslims by the Jews did not surprise the Prophet (Pbuh), who said of them: ‘The hearts of the Jews have become closed to the truth. They have forgotten what Muses taught them long ago that there is only one God.’
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
The likeness of those who are entrusted with the
Law of Moses, yet apply it not, is as the likeness of the ass carrying books.
Evil is the likeness of the people who deny the revelations of Allah. And Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
The Muslims wondered how they could defend Medina. They heard that Abu Sufyan was coming to attack them with an enormous army which included many other Arab tribes, as well as Quraysh. What were they to do with only a single week to prepare? The Prophet (Pbuh) and his men knew that it would be impossible for them to fight off all these tribes! The only thing they could do was to stay inside the city and try to defend it as best they could.
Now among the people of Medina was a Persian named Salman, who had to live in the city some time before the Prophet’s arrival there. As a convert to Christianity he had traveled to Medina after Christian sages had told him that a Prophet would be born in Arabia. On arriving in Medina he was, however, sold into slavery by the merchants with whom he had traveled. Later he became a Muslim, gained his freedom and became a member of the Prophet’s household.
When the people gathered to discuss a plan of action against the approaching enemy, Salman was present and it was he who suggested that they should dig a trench around the city. The Prophet (Pbuh) thought this a good idea, so the Muslims set to work, although it was in the middle of winter. They worked day and night, digging the trench as quickly as possible. The Prophet (Pbuh) himself carried rocks and when the men were tired he gave them the will to carry on. Someone later recalled how beautiful he looked, dressed in a red cloak with dust upon his breast and his dark hair nearly reaching his shoulders.
There was little food at this time and the men were often hungry as they worked. On one occasion, however, a little girl gave some dates to the Prophet (Pbuh), which he spread out on a cloth. The men were then called to eat and the dates kept increasing in number until everyone had been fed. Even after everyone had eaten their fill, the dates continued to increase so that there were more than the cloth could hold.
Similarly, there is the story of the lamb, that has come down to us from one who was there: ‘We worked with the Apostle at the trench. I had a half-grown lamb and I thought it would be a good thing to cook it for Allah’s Messenger. I told my wife to grind barley and make some bread for us. I killed the lamb and we roasted it for the Prophet (Pbuh). When night fell and he was about to leave the trench, I told him we had prepared bread and meat and invited him to our home. I wanted him to come on his own, but when I said this he sent someone to call all the men to come along. Everyone arrived and the food was served. He blessed it and invoked the Name of Allah over it. Then he ate and so did all of the others. As soon as one lot were satisfied, another group came until all the diggers had eaten enough, but still there was food to spare.
On March 24, 627 A.D., Abu Sufyan arrived with more than ten thousand men. The Muslims numbered only three thousand. Quraysh and their allies surrounded Medina but between the two armies was the long, wide trench. The Prophet (pbuh) and his men stayed behind this trench for nearly a month defending the city against their more powerful enemy. Many times warriors tried to cross the trench and enter the city, but each time they were pushed back by the Muslims. The Muslims were afraid that if any did manage to cross over, the Jews inside Medina would join forces with them and the Muslims would be beaten. The Jewish tribe of Bani Quraydhah, who had stood by the agreement with the Muslims, were pressed by a Jewish emissary from the enemy without, to break their promise. Eventually they agreed to do so and when the news of this reached the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions they were greatly troubled. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, the leader of the tribe of Aws, was sent by the Prophet (pbuh) with two other men to find out if this were true. When they arrived in the part of Medina where the Jews lived, they found were even worse than they had previously thought. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, whose tribe was closely allied with the Bani Quraydhah, tried to persuade their leader not to break the treaty with the Muslims, but he refused to listen. This meant that the Muslims could not relax their guard for one moment, for they were now threatened not only by the enemy beyond the trench, but by the Bani Qurayzah, within the walls of the city.
Things became more difficult for the Muslims day by day. It was extremely cold and food began to run out. To make matters worse, the Bani Qurayzah began openly and actively to join forces with the other Jews and cut off all supplies to the Muslims, including food. The enemies of Islam then planned how to capture Medina.
The situation looked desperate and the Prophet (pbuh) prayed to Allah to help the Muslims defeat their enemies. That very night a sandstorm blew up which buried the tents of Quraysh. The storm continued for three days and three nights making it impossible for the enemy to light a fire to cook a meal or warm themselves by.
On one of these dark nights the Prophet (pbuh) asked one of his men, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, to go on a dangerous mission. The Prophet (pbuh) told him to make his way across the trench to the enemy camp where he should find out what they were doing.
With much difficulty Hudhayfah crossed the trench and made his way to a circle of Quraysh warriors talking in the darkness. He sat near them, but as there was no fire, no one noticed him. He then heard Abu Sufyan’s voice: ‘Let us go hom!’ he said. ‘We have had enough. The horses and camels are dying, the tents keep blowing away, most of the equipment has been lost, and we can not cook our food. There is no reason to stay!’ Shortly after hearing this Hudhayfah made his way quickly and quietly back across the trench and the next morning the Muslims rejoiced to find that what he had overheard had come true-Quraysh and their allies had gone away! The siege of Medina had ended in a great victory for Islam.
But this was not to be the end of the difficulties, for the Archangel Gabriel came to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him that he should punish the Bani Qurayzah for betraying him and the Muslims. On hearing this, the Prophet (pbuh) ordered the Muslims to march against the Bani Qurayzah as they hid in their fortress. The Muslims besieged them for twenty-five days until they finally gave in. On surrendering, they asked the Prophet (pbuh) to let someone judge their case, and he agreed. He also allowed them to choose who would give the ruling.
The man chosen to judge the Bani Qurayzah was Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, leader of the Aws, a tribe which had always protected Bani Qurayzah in the past. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh who had himself been wounded in the battle, decided that the Jews should be tried by their own Holy Law, according to which anyone who broke a treaty would be put to death. As a result all the men of the Bani Qurayzah were executed and the women and children made captive.
If the Jews had succeeded in their pact, Islam would have been destroyed. Instead from that day on, Medina became a city where only Muslims lived. Very soon after peace had been restored to Medina, Sa’d ibn Mu’adh died of his wounds. It was said that the Archangel Gabriel came in the middle of that night and said to the Prophet (pbuh) ‘O Muhammad, who is this dead man? When he arrived, the doors of heaven opened and the Throne of Allah shook.’ The Prophet (pbuh) got up as soon as he heard this, but found that Sa’d was already dead. Although he had been a heavy man, the men who carried his body to the grave found it quite light. They were told that the angels were helping them. When he was buried, the Prophet (pbuh) said three times ‘Subhan Allah!’ (Glory be to Allah!), and ‘Allahu Akbar!’ (Allah is Most Great!). When asked why he did this, he replied, ‘The grave was tight for this good man, until Allah eased it for him.’ This is one of the rewards that Allah gives to martyrs and good Muslims.
site of the battle of the Trench
Treaty of Hudaibiya: Prophet of Islam prefered Global Peace & Unity over conflict
QURAYSH had tried to destroy Islam but had failed. The number of Muslims grew and their armies increased from three hundred at the battle of Badr, seven hundred at the battle of “Uhud, to three thousand at the battle of the Trench.
After the annual fast of Ramadan, the Prophet (pbuh) had a dream which indicated that the Muslims should go to Mecca for the pilgrimage. One thousand and four hundred Muslims got ready to go with him on the Lesser Pilgrimage called ‘the `Umra’. They dressed in white and went unarmed to show Quraysh that they had come to make the pilgrimage and not to fight. When Quraysh heard that the Prophet (pbuh) was on his way, they sent troops with Khalid ibn al-Walid to stop the Muslims from entering the city.
To avoid meeting this small army the Prophet (pbuh) changed his route and led the men through rugged mountain passes. When they reached easier ground he told them, ‘Say, we ask Allah’s forgiveness and we repent towards Him ‘At Hudaybiyah, south of Mecca, the Prophet’s camel knelt down and refused to go any further. The Muslims thought she was either stubborn or tired, but the Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘The same power that once stopped the elephant from entering Mecca is now stopping us!’ He then ordered them to make camp, which they did, although they all hoped they would travel on to the sacred Ka’bah the following day.
On setting up camp, the believers were dismayed to find that the springs were almost dry. When he heard this the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) instructed a man called Najiyah to take the bowl of water in which he had performed his ablutions, pour it into the hollows where the small amount of spring water lay, and stir it with his arrows. Najiyah did as he was told and the fresh water gushed up so suddenly that he was hardly able to get out of the way in time.
Messengers were sent to Quraysh to tell them that the Muslims had come only for the pilgrimage, to worship Allah at the Holy Ka’bah, and that they wanted to enter the city peacefully. But Quraysh took no notice. Finally, the Prophet’s son-in-law, ‘Uthman ibn Affan, a wise and respected man, was chosen to go, and the Muslims settled down to wait and see what news he would bring back. After they had waited a long time, the Muslims became very worried. At last they decided that he must have been killed. A state similar to that of Revelation then came upon the Prophet (pbuh). He gathered the Muslims around him under an acacia tree and asked them to swear their allegiance to him, which they did. This pact, which is mentioned in the Koran, became known as the Treaty of Radwan (which means Paradise). Shortly after, `Uthman ibn Affan returned and the Muslims were relieved to see that no harm had come to him.
Some Meccan warriors tried to attack the Muslim camp but were captured and brought before the Prophet (pbuh), who forgave them when they promise to stop attacking the Muslims. Soon after this, official messengers came from Quraysh and talks began for a peaceful settlement. A man called Suhayl ibn ‘Amr was sent by the Meccans to work out a treaty. When the Prophet (pbuh) asked ‘Ali to write ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful’, on the top of the page, Suhayl objected, saying ‘Write only: bismik Allahumma (in Thy name, O Allah). I don’t know him as al-Rahman (the Most Gracious), al-Rahim (the most Merciful).’
The Prophet (pbuh) agreed and dictated: ‘This is a treaty between Muhammad the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.’ ‘Stop!’ cried Suhayl, ‘I don’t believe that you are Rasulallah (the Messenger of Allah). If I thought you were Allah’s Messenger, I wouldn’t be fighting against you, would I?’
Calmly, the Prophet (pbuh) agreed that he should be referred to in the treaty as Muhammad’, son of ‘Abd Allah. The Muslims were very upset at this, and ‘Umar furiously cried out, ‘Are you not Allah’s Messenger, and are we not Muslims? How can we accept such treatment when we are right and they are wrong? This will make people laugh at our religion!’
But the Prophet (pbuh) knew what was best and the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed. In this treaty the two sides agreed to stop fighting for a period of ten years. It was also agreed that the Muslims should go back to Medina immediately but that they could return the following year for the pilgrimage. This pilgrimage would last three days. In addition, the treaty allowed Muslims wishing to leave Islam and return to Mecca to do so. It also permitted Meccans to leave and become Muslims provided they had the permission of their guardians. The Muslims agreed to send any Meccan who did not have their guardian’s permission back to Mecca.
Suhayl’s son had come with his father with the idea of joining the Prophet (pbuh) but when the treaty was signed he was, of course, forced to return to Mecca. He cried bitterly. The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘O Abu Jandal, be patient and control yourself. Allah will provide relief and find a way out for you and others like you.’
The majority of the Muslims were very disappointed when they heard the terms of the agreement and thought that it should not have been accepted. They did not realize that this was in fact a great victory for the Prophet (pbuh), which Allah would later confirm in a Revelation. The agreement made sure that the following year they would enter Mecca peacefully, and in time would result in Muslims becoming stronger and more respected throughout Arabia. At the time the treaty was signed the Muslims could not have foreseen that the number of people who would travel to Medina to become Muslims in following year would be greater than in all the years before.
Before the Muslims departed, they followed the Prophet’s example of making sacrifice and either shaving or cutting their hair. Even though they were unable to visit the sacred mosque, their pilgrimage was accepted by Allah because it had been their true intention. On the return journey to Medina, the ‘Victory’ chapter of the Koran was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh). It begins:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Surely We have given thee (O Muhammad) a clear victory,
That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin
That which is past and that which is to come,
And may complete His blessings upon thee,
And may guide thee on the right path,
And that Allah may help thee with mighty help.
Now most of those who left Mecca to join the Prophet (pbuh) without the consent of their guardians and were turned back by him as agreed, Did not in fact return to Mecca, but lived instead in groups along the seashore. Then they were joined by others who had left Mecca but these groups began to endanger Quraysh caravans which were passing by and disrupted their trade because of this, Quraysh told the Prophet (pbuh) that if he wanted to take these new Muslims, they would not ask for them to be returned. The young men, therefore, joined the Prophet (pbuh) and the people in Mecca and Medina grew more at ease with one another. The young men from the seashore were shortly followed by those Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia, and soon the numbers of believers in Medina had doubled.
About this time, Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great warrior who had defeated the Muslims at Uhud, set out from Mecca for Medina. Along the way he met ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, the clever speaker who had pursued the Muslims when they fled to Abyssinia. ‘Amr, who had attempted to find asylum in Abyssinia, had just returned from that country, the Negus having urged him to enter Islam. He asked Khalid, ‘Where are you going?’ Khalid replied, ‘The way has become clear. The man is certainly a Prophet, and by Allah, I am going to become a Muslim. How much longer should I delay?’ ‘Amr ibn al-As answered, ‘I am travelling for the same reason.
So they both traveled on to Medina to join the Prophet (pbuh). The two men were, however, worried about meeting the Prophet (pbuh) because of having fought against the Muslims in the past. Therefore, ‘Amr came before Allah’s Messenger he said, ‘O Prophet, will my past faults be forgiven and no mention made of what has gone before?’ The Prophet (pbuh) replied ‘Amr, Islam wipes away everything that happened before, as does the hijrah.’ A year after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) was able to lead two thousand pilgrims on the ‘Umra. Quraysh vacated Mecca and watched the rites from the hills above the city. The agreed period of three days was observed, after which the Muslims returned to Medina.
THE peace which the Treaty of Hudaybiyah guaranteed for ten years meant people could travel from all over Arabia to visit the Prophet (pbuh) and a great many came to declare their Islam. Also, during this period the Prophet (pbuh) decided that the time had come for his message to be taken to other countries, so he sent trusted companions with letters, telling of his message, to the leaders of the most powerful nations of the day. It is recorded that he said, Allah has sent me as a mercy to all men, so take the message from me that Allah has mercy on you.’ It is also recorded that some time before, when the Prophet (pbuh) was digging before the Battle of the Trench, three flashes of lightning had blared forth from a rock he had been striving to remove. These flashes had shown him the fortresses of the civilizations to the South, East, and West which were soon to come into Islam.
Now at the time the Prophet (pbuh) sent out his message. Abu Sufyan and some other members of Quraysh were trading in Syria, a province of the Eastern Roman Empire (later to be called Byzantium). Also, at about this time the Emperor Heraclius, ruler of this Empire, had a dream, and sadly told visitors to his court in Syria: ‘I saw our Empire fall and victory go to a people who do not follow our religion.’ At first he thought this must refer to the Jews and he even had it in mind to kill all the Jews living under his rule fit then an envoy from the governor of Basra arrived with a message for the Emperor: O Emperor Heraclius. there are some Arabs in the city who are speaking of wonderful happenings in their country’, and he then told of what he had heard about the Prophet (pbuh).
On hearing this Heraclius commanded his soldiers: Go and find me someone who can tell me more about this.’ The soldiers, however, did not find those who had been talking about the Prophet (pbuh), but instead found Abu Sufyan and some of his companions and brought them before the Emperor. Heraclius asked, ‘Is there anyone among you who is a close relative of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)?’ Abu Sufyan replied, ‘I am.’
So the Emperor addressed all the questions to him, thinking he would know the Prophet (pbuh) best. He said, ‘Tell me what is the Prophet’s position in your tribe”
Abu Sufyan said, ‘he is a member of our most respected family.
Did anyone before him say the kinds of things he says?’ the Emperor went on. ‘No.’ was the reply. ‘And was he ever accused of lying or cheating?’
‘Never.’ And then the Emperor asked: ‘And what about his ideas and opinions, and his powers of reasoning?’ ‘No one has ever had cause to doubt him or find fault with his reasoning’, replied Abu Sufyan. ‘Who follows him, the proud or the humble?’
‘The humble.’ ‘Do his followers increase or decrease?’
‘They increase’, said Abu Sufyan, ‘none of his followers leave him.’
The Emperor then turned to other matters and asked: ‘If he makes a treaty, does he keep it?’
‘Yes’, Abu Sufyan replied.
‘Did you ever fight against him?’ inquired the Emperor.
To which Abu Sufyan answered: ‘Yes. Sometimes we won, sometimes he won, but he never broke his word in any agreement.’
The emperor then asked: ‘What does he say people must do?’
‘To worship one God’, said Abu Sufyan. ‘He forbids people to worship as their fathers worshipped, and says they must pray to Allah alone, give elms, keep their word, and fulfill their duties and responsibilities.’
Abu Sufyan had spoken the truth even though he was an enemy of the prophet (pbuh), and did not become a Muslim until the very end of his life. But he was afraid to lie before the members of his caravan who were also there with him. The meeting ended with these words from the Emperor: ‘I see from this that he is indeed a prophet. You said that his followers don not leave him which proves they have true faith, for faith, does not enter the heart and then go away. I knew he was coming and if what you say is true, he will surely conquer me. If I were with him now, I would wash his feet. You may leave now.’
It was not long after this that the messenger, Dihyah, arrived at the Syrian court bearing the Prophet Muhammad’s letter which said, ‘If you accept Islam you will be safe and Allah will give you a double reward. If you do not, you will have to live with results of your decision.’
Heraclius grabbed the letter. He was so upset he could hardly control himself. He said to Dihyah, ‘I know your master is a true prophet of Allah. Our books tell of his coming. If I were not afraid that the Romans would kill me, I would join Islam. You must visit Bishop Daghatir and tell him every thing. His word is more respected among the people than mine.’
So Dihyah related the message to the Bishop and when he heard it, Daghatir said, ‘Yes, your master whom we call Ahmed is mentioned in our scriptures.’ He then changed from his black ropes into white ones and went and spoke to the people gathered in the church. ’O Romans, a letter has come to us from Ahmed, in which he calls us to Allah. I bear witness that there is no Divinity but Allah and that Ahmed is his slave and messenger.’ (Ahmed is another name for the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).) But on hearing this the crowd grew angry and attacked Daghatir, beating him until he was dead.
Heraclius was afraid that the same thing would happen to him, so he spoke to his generals from a balcony saying, ‘O Romans! A man has written to me calling me to his religion I believe he is truly the prophet we have been told to expect. Let us follow him so that we can be happy in this world and the next.’ The Romans cried out in anger when they heard this, so Heraclius quickly said, ‘I was only pretending; I wanted to see how strong your faith was. I am pleased to see that you are true to your religion.’ Heraclius then suggested that they attacks or give land to the Muslims in order to maintain peace, but the Romans refused. Realizing that he could do no more, and knowing that one day Islam would conquer Syria, Heraclius left the province and returned to Constantinople, the capital of Eastern Roman Empire. As he rode away he turned around to look back and said, ‘Good-bye for the last time, O land of Syria!’
Meanwhile, another of the Prophet’s messengers arrived at the palace of Chosroes, the Shah (or king) of Persia, where he was told by the royal guard: ‘When you see the Shah, you must bow and not lift your head until he speaks to you.’ To this the Prophet’s messenger replied, `I will never do that. I bow only to Allah.’ ‘Then the Shah will not accept the letter you bring’, they said. And when the time came for the messenger to see him, the Shah was indeed very surprised to see the man holding his head high and refusing to kneel respectfully before him like everyone else. Nonetheless, the Shah still read out the letter:
“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful, from Muhammad, Messenger of Allah to Chosroes, Shah of Persia. Peace be upon those who follow the truth, who believe in Allah and His Prophet and who testify that there is no divinity but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger. I ask you in the Name of Allah, because I am His Messenger, to warn your people that if they do not accept His Message, they must live with the consequences. Become Muslim and you will be safe. If you refuse to tell them you will be to blame for the ignorance of your subjects.”
The Shah was furious when he read this and tore the letter into little pieces. When the messenger returned to Arabia and told the Prophet (pbuh) what Chosroes had done, the Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘May Allah also tear his kingdom into little pieces.’ And several years later it happened just as the Prophet (pbuh) had said it would.
As with Syria and Persia, a messenger was also sent to the Negus (or King) of Abyssinia, with the following letter:
Peace. Praise be to Allah, the King, the All-Holy, the Peacemaker, the Keeper of Faith, the Watcher.
He is Allah, there is no divinity but He,
the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One, the All-peaceable,
the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Majestic,
the Compeller, the All-sublime. Glorified be Allah
from all that they associate with Him.
And I testify that Jesus, son of Mary, is the spirit of Allah and His Word which He cast to Mary the Virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. Allah created him from His Spirit and His Breath as He created Adam by His Hand and His Breath. I call you to Allah, the Unique, without partner, to His obedience, and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allah. Peace be upon all those who follow true guidance.
The King of Abyssinia was a very wise man, and was thought by the world to be a good Christian. He had, of course, already heard of the Prophet (pbuh) and his religion from the Muslims who had sought refuge in his country years before. He was deeply moved by the letter and when he came down from his throne it was not just to show his respect but also to declare that he was already a Muslim. He answered the Prophet’s letter with one of his own.
“To Muhammad the Prophet of Allah from the Negus al-Asham, King of Abyssinia. Assalamu aleikum O Prophet of Allah wa rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu. There is none like Him who has guided me to Islam.I received your letter, O Messenger of Allah. Some of your followers, as well as your cousin Ja’far, still live here. I believe you arc truly the Messenger of God and reaffirm the pledge of allegiance I made to you some time ago before your cousin Ja’far, at whose hand I joined Islam and surrendered to the Lord of the Worlds”.
A fourth messenger had, in the meantime, traveled by boat to Alexandria to meet the Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt, who was a Coptic Christian. In his letter, the Prophet (pbuh) invited the Muqawqis to accept Islam, because Christian who believed in the message of Jesus should also believe in him, for he had come with the same message from Allah. It read: “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful, from Muhammad, son of ‘Abd Allah to the great Copt. Peace he upon whoever follows the Truth. I beseech you to accept Islam. Become a Muslim. Allah will reward you twice. If you refuse, you will carry the blame for not allowing your people to share in this blessing”. The Muqawqis showed respect for what the letter said. He treated the messenger well, and sent many presents with him for the Prophet (pbuh), but he did not become a Muslim. Although only Abyssinia responded to the Prophet’s call to Islam, all was not lost, for a few years later Persia, Syria and Egypt all became Muslim countries.
DESPITE the improved relations between Mecca and Medina after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraysh who, with their allies, the Bani Bakr, attacked the Khuza’ah tribe. Now Khuza’ah were allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (pbuh) heard of the attack he immediately ordered his men to prepare for war. When they were ready he told them that their destination was Mecca and, as he did not want any fighting within the walls of the city, he told them they must move quickly and take the enemy by surprise. In this way the Meccans would not have time to prepare for war and, being surrounded would have to surrender.
The Muslims would then be able to take the city without injury or loss of life to anyone. When the Muslim army, which numbered ten thousand, set out for Mecca it was the month of Ramadan in the eighth year of the Hijrah. Many of the men kept the fast, even though they were not obliged to because they were travelling. Everyone was jubilant because they were going to Mecca, especially as some of them had not seen their homes in the city for eight long years.
In the meantime, the Prophet’s uncle, al-‘Abbas, had decided that the time had come for him and his wife to leave Mecca and join the Prophet (pbuh) in Medina. They did not, however, have to go far as after a distance of only twenty-five kilometers they came across the Muslim camp. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw them he said, ‘Uncle, your emigration is the last emigration as my prophecy is the last prophecy.’ Al-‘Abbas then joined the army and his wife went on to the safety of Medina.
Night fell and the Muslims made fires to light their camp. The Meccans, looking out of the city, were amazed to see the many fires, and Abu Sufyan went all over Mecca trying to find out whose camp it was. Suddenly he saw al-‘Abbas riding towards him from the direction of the fires. He was returning as a messenger of peace from the Prophet (pbuh) and said to Abu Sufyan, ‘The Muslims have come with a large army. They do not wish to fight, only to enter the city. It would be better to surrender and not fight. Come under my protection and meet the Prophet (pbuh).’
Abu Sufyan agreed, and got up behind al-Abbas, who was riding the Prophet’s white mule. It was still night as they entered the Muslim camp. Each time they passed a fire, someone would call out, ‘Who goes there?’ None of them recognized the stranger as the leader of their enemy but all knew al-‘Abbas and so let them through.
As they passed by ‘Umar, however, he immediately recognized Abu Sufyan and yelled out, ‘Abu Sufyan! The enemy of Allah!’ He ran after them intending to kill his enemy but al-‘Abbas made the mule go faster. They reached the Prophet’s tent just before ‘Umar who rushed in after them quite out of breath.
‘Umar begged the Prophet (pbuh), ‘O Messenger of Allah, let me end the life of Abu Sufyan, this enemy of Islam, who has led the Quraysh armies in their attacks on us!’ Al-‘Abbas interrupted, saying, ‘I have sworn to protect him during his time here whereupon the Prophet (pbuh) told his uncle to take Abu Sufyan to his tent for the night.
In the morning Abu Sufyan was taken to the Prophet (pbuh) who said, ‘Abu Sufyan! Have you not yet realized that there is no divinity but Allah?’ To this Abu Sufyan replied, ‘If there had been another he surely would Have helped me by now.’ ‘Shame on you, Abu Sufyan’, responded the Prophet (pbuh), ‘it is time you realize that I am truly Allah’s Messenger.’ After a moment or two, Abu Sufyan, who remembered how ‘Umar had not been allowed to kill him, replied: ‘I can see you are a generous and forgiving man but I still cannot be sure of that.’
At this, al-‘Abbas, who had been standing nearby turned to him and said: ‘Believe as I do now.’ Abu Sufyan stood quietly for a moment, then in a calm, clear voice swore in front of everyone, there is no divinity but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.’
The Prophet (pbuh) then told Abu Sufyan to go back to Mecca and tell the people that the Muslims would enter the city the next morning. Before he left, however, al-‘Abbas suggested to the Prophet (pbuh) that as Abu Sufyan was a proud man, it would be good to give him an honorable position. The Prophet (pbuh) took this advice, saying to Abu Sufyan, ‘Tell the people that when we enter, anyone seeking refuge in your house will be safe.’ This was a great honor for Abu Sufyan. In addition, the Prophet (pbuh) told him to assure the Meccans that those who remained in their own homes or at the Ka’bah would also be protected.
Abu Sufyan returned quickly to the city. He made straight for the hill in which Hagar had climbed in her search for water and from which the Prophet (pbuh) later spoke, and called upon Quraysh to come to him. Abu Sufyan then spoke to the people, ‘O people of Mecca, the fires we saw all around us were the camp fires of Muhammad and his men. He has come with a strong army and there are not too many for us to fight. It is best, therefore, to surrender. Anyone who stays in my house, or in his own home, or at the Ka’bah will be safe.’
Early next day, the Muslims entered Mecca from all sides. They had been ordered to cause no harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering. When the Prophet (pbuh) arrived, he got off his camel, bowed down on the ground and thanked Allah for this victory. When the unbelievers saw this, they knew that the Prophet (pbuh) had come in peace. People began leaving their homes and running towards the Ka’bah. When they arrived there, they found the Prophet (pbuh) performing the ritual encircling of the Ka’bah, the tawaf on his camel, surrounded by the Muslims. When he had finished, he said, ‘There no divinity except Allah and He has no partner. Men and women of Quraysh be not proud for all are equal; we are all the sons of Adam, and Adam was made of dust.’ Then he recited this verse to them:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes so you may know each another. Surely the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct.
Lo! Allah is All-knowing, All-aware.
After this he said to them: ‘O Quraysh, what do you think I am going to do to you?’ The people thought carefully before answering because they knew that according to the laws of war they could all be taken prisoner. They also knew, however, that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was generous, so they replied, ‘You will treat us as a kind nephew and a generous brother would.’ To this he replied with the words used by the Prophet Joseph when his brothers came to Egypt: ‘God forgives you and He is the Most Merciful of the merciful.’ Later the Prophet (pbuh) went to the hill of Safa and there the crowd followed him and surged forward, taking his hand one by one, to declare themselves Muslim. He then turned to the Ka’bah and, pointing his staff at the three hundred and sixty-five idols which were placed there, recited from the Koran:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
… Truth has come and falsehood has vanished away.
Lo! Falsehood is ever bound to vanish.
At this, each idol fell over onto its face. Together with his followers the Prophet (pbuh) then proceeded to purify the Ka’bah, after which he ordered Bilal to climb on top of it and perform the call to prayer. Since then the call to prayer has been heard five times a day in Mecca. The Ka’bah, the House of Allah, has served the purpose for which it was built by Abraham thousands of years ago, as a sanctuary for the worship of Allah, our Creator, and Mecca continues to be the spiritual center of Islam.
On the day Mecca was conquered, the Prophet (pbuh) addressed the people saying: ‘Allah made Mecca holy the day He created heaven and earth and it is the Holy of Holies until the Resurrection Day. It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood therein, nor to cut down trees therein. It was not lawful for anyone before me and it will not be lawful for anyone after me. Indeed it is not lawful for me except this time. Mecca has now regained its former holiness. Let those here now go forth and tell others.’
ISLAM flourished in Mecca and the Muslims became stronger and stronger.
But south of Mecca lived a tribe of warriors called Hawazin, who had not become Muslim. They made an agreement with another tribe from Ta’if, called Thaqif to fight the Muslims and destroy them before they could spread their religion throughout Arabia. The Thaqif, who were known for their courage, soon won the support of other tribes living around the Ta’if area, especially when such tribes were told: ‘Look what has happened! If Quraysh, the largest tribe of all, have fallen to Muhammad, it is only a matter of time before the same will happen to the rest of us. We should strike now before the Muslims are established in Mecca and have the support of Quraysh.’
The Chief of one of these tribes, a fearless warrior called Malik
ibn ‘Awf, was chosen as the leader. He put forward a plan: ‘You should all go out to battle accompanied by your families, your tents, your sheep and goats, for with all your belongings at stake, none of you will dare give up the fight.’ Everyone agreed with Malik except an old, blind man called Dorayd.
He had been a great warrior in his day and because of his experience and valuable advice still accompanied the men into battle. ‘I don’t like Malik’s plan’, he insisted. ‘If a man is so cowardly as to leave a battle, then he will leave his family as well. The women and children will be a great worry to us and if we are defeated all our wealth will fall into enemy hands.’ But Malik ignored this advice and stuck to his original plan.
When the Prophet (pbuh) heard what the enemy tribes were planning, he found himself forced to fight and ordered his army towards Ta’if. He had twelve thousand men and the enemy only four thousand. The Muslims were proud of their strength and as they looked around at their number, said to themselves, ‘We will never be defeated!’ On hearing this the Prophet (pbuh) knew that the Muslims had become too proud and because of this would not succeed. He warned them, ‘Look to Allah and not to your own strength.’
The time for battle came. The Muslim army advanced along the Hunayn path, a narrow way in the rugged mountains, towards the valley where the Hawazin and the other tribes were waiting. It was very early morning and not yet light. The Muslims were unaware that, under cover of darkness, the Hawazin warriors had already climbed up the mountain and were waiting for them. As soon as all the Muslims were trapped in the narrow passage-way below, the Hawazin ambushed them. First they threw rocks down upon them and then attacked with arrows and swords.
In surprise and fear, the Muslims started to retreat. The Prophet (pbuh) was bitterly disappointed to see them fleeing in terror but he stayed firmly in his place with Abu Bakr, ‘Ali, his uncle al-‘Abbas, and a few companions at his side. Al-‘Abbas then called to the Muslims to return and not to abandon the Prophet (pbuh). Ashamed at what they had done, and seeing the Prophet (pbuh) facing the enemy almost alone, the Muslims quickly returned to fight. Then Allah sent His angels-the hosts ye cannot see-to their aid. A fierce battle followed. The Muslim warriors advanced, attacking furiously, driving the Hawazin back from the path into the valley, where the fighting went on long and hard. At the end of the day the Muslims won but not before having learned a hard lesson about the danger of pride.
Just as the old man had predicted, the defeated enemy fled, leaving their families and possessions to be captured. Later all the leaders of the tribes except one came to ask for them back and to declare their acceptance of Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) forgave them and returned their families to them, but not their belongings.
The one exception was the leader of Hawazin. He fled to Ta’if, where he sought protection in the castle, but the Muslims pursued him and surrounded the city, which they besieged for about three weeks. They tried to break into the castle but after losing many men in the attempt the Prophet (pbuh) ordered a withdrawal. The story did not end there, however, for shortly afterwards Hawazin and most of the other tribes came to Mecca and declared themselves Muslim, including Malik ibn Awf, who had led them in battle and whom the Prophet (pbuh) now made their leader.
After the battle of the Hunayn Valley, the Prophet (pbuh) distributed what goods had been taken between the people of Quraysh and the other Bedouin tribes. The Ansar from Medina, who had been his only support during the long hard years before the conquest of Mecca, received nothing. They felt angry about this and went to the Prophet (pbuh) to complain. He said to them, what is this I hear of you? Do you think badly of me? Did I not come to you when you did not know the truth and Allah guided you; when you were poor and Allah made you rich; when you were enemies and Allah softened your hearts? Are you covetous for the things of this world that I must use to gain people’s trust so that I can then lead them to Islam? Surely for you Islam is enough? Are you not satisfied that while some men take away flocks and herds you take Allah’s Messenger back with you to Medina?’
On hearing this, all the men felt very contrite and began to weep then with great humility and reverence their spokesman said: ‘We are indeed well pleased to have Allah’s Messenger as our gift in this life. ’Perhaps we could ask ourselves the same question. Are we not blessed to have the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Book, guiding us in what really matters for ever and ever? Is this not so much more important than thinking about the momentary pleasures of the day?
Shortly after this the Ansar left for Medina accompanied by the Prophet (pbuh). He could have stayed among his own people and lived out his days in Mecca, but he returned as he had promised, to live among the people of Medina, which was a great blessing for them.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Allah gave you victory on many fields and on the
day of Hunayn, when you exulted in your great numbers it was of no help to you, and the earth, vast as it is, was
straitened for you; then you turned back in flight;
Then Allah sent His peace of reassurance down upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down
hosts you could not see, and punished those who did not believe. Such is the reward of disbelievers. Then afterwards Allah will relent toward whom He
will; for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful
NEWS of the growing power of the Muslims, as more and more of Arabia followed the Prophet (pbuh), eventually reached Heraclius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Romans saw the uniting of the Arabs in Islam as a possible threat to their Empire and the Emperor’s advisors and generals, therefore, decided that the best thing to do would be to attack the Muslims from the north and east at the same time and destroy Islam once and for all.
Two years had passed since Heraclius had told them of the Prophet’s letter asking them to submit to Islam, but just as then, they were in no mood now to listen to such ideas. When the Prophet (pbuh) heard of the Romans’ plans, he decided that it would be better to meet the Roman army in Tabuk, some 500 kilometers form Medina on the route to Syria, than to await an attack on Medina. One reason for this decision was that the Prophet (pbuh) felt that if the Muslims were defeated at Medina, the city as well as the army would be taken, which would mean the end of Islam. This was a very hard decision for him to make because not only was Tabuk a very long way away, but it was also harvest time and a particularly hot year. Added to this was the fact that the enemy had an enormous army.
Now at this time there were some people living in Medina who were not true believers. They were called ‘hypocrites’ because they pretended to believe but hid what was truly in their hearts. When the Prophet (pbuh) called everyone to war, these hypocrites tried to create fear and doubt among the Muslims, saying ‘How can we hope to defeat the Romans whose great empire stretches over vast areas of the world? And even if we could, we will not get the chance because the long journey and the heat will defeat us first. In any case, our crops and fruits are ready to be harvested; how can we leave them? We will be ruined if we do!’
All that the hypocrites said severely tested the Muslims. Who would continue to fight for his religion against such odds? Who would have the courage to give his wealth to help equip an army? This test of faith would indeed show who the true Muslims were. On this question, Allah revealed the following verse:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
O ye who believe! what is the matter with you,
that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of Allah,
ye cling heavily to the earth?
Do ye prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter?
But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.
To form and equip an army the Prophet (pbuh) needed a great deal of money and despite all that the hypocrites had said, many Muslims, especially the Prophet’s close friends, were willing to help. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, for instance, generously provided horses and arms for ten thousand soldiers and Abu Bakr gave all that he had in the world. ‘Umar, too, gave a great deal, and in this way the Prophet (pbuh) was able to equip an army of forty thousand soldiers.
Finally everything was ready but just as they were about to leave, seven more men came to the Prophet (pbuh) to ask if they could go with him. Unfortunately, he had to refuse because there were no animals for them to ride. The seven men were so sad that they wept as they left. With nothing more to be done, the army moved off, but just then several spare camels were found. On learning of this, the Prophet (pbuh) sent for the seven men, who were overjoyed to find that they could join him in his fight.
By now the Romans had heard that the Muslims were coming out to meet them. They felt even more sure of victory when they heard this because they believed that it would be quite impossible for an army to cross a waterless desert in the scorching summer sun. Even if by some miracle the Muslims succeeded, they would be so exhausted that it would be easy to defeat them.
As it happed the heat was so intense and the journey so difficult that several Muslims did turn back. The Prophet (pbuh) and most of the others, however, continued until they finally ran out of water. The expedition now seemed hopeless as the men grew thirstier and thirstier. The Prophet (pbuh) prayed to Allah for help and, as he finished his prayer, the first drops of rain came splashing down. The rain continued to fall until all the Muslims had drunk their fill. That night they slept soundly for the first time in days, refreshed by the water and confident that Bilal would wake them as usual for the dawn prayer. But Bilal slept so deeply that he did not wake up. It was the first time that the Muslims had missed a prayer and they were very upset.
The prophet (pbuh), however, was not angry with Bilal and told the Muslims that they need not be upset because they had not intentionally missed the prayer. The Prophet (pbuh) and his army continued their trek across the desert and finally arrived at the oasis of Tabuk. When they got there, however, they were surprised to find that the Roman army had retreated in fear on hearing of the miraculous crossing of the desert by the Muslims. The Prophet (pbuh) waited at the oasis for a while but when it became apparent that the Romans were not going to fight, he gave the order to return home. The enemy was not pursued because the Prophet (pbuh) only fought when attacked.
The long march to Tabuk had been yet another test of faith for the Muslims. Even so, there were still some among those who made that heroic journey who were hypocrites, pretending to be sincere while being enemies of Islam in their hearts. No one could have suspected that anyone who had made that journey across the desert with the Prophet (pbuh) would be an enemy of his. Realizing this, several hypocrites plotted to kill the Prophet (pbuh) by pushing him off the top of a high, rocky passage that ran between the mountains of ‘Aqabah.
Before the army reached this rocky passage, however, Allah warned the Prophet (pbuh) about this wicked plan. The Prophet (pbuh), therefore, ordered the entire army to travel through the valley while he and his two guards went by way of the cliff. As the plotters approached, he shouted to them so that they could see that he knew of their plan, whereupon they quickly ran back to the army and tried to hide among the rest of the soldiers.
Later, the Prophet (pbuh) gathered his followers around him and told them what had happened. He picked out the men who had plotted against him and even told them the exact words they had spoken to each other. Some of the Prophet’s companions said that these men should be killed, but the Prophet (pbuh) forgave them.
As soon as he arrived back in Medina, the Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque and prayed. Many of the hypocrites and the lukewarm who had not gone with him to Tabuk came to give their reasons for not having done so. Three men of spiritual value who had not joined the army were subjected by the Prophet (pbuh) to the discipline of waiting for Allah’s forgiveness. For fifty days no one spoke to them. Finally, Allah revealed a verse to the Prophet (pbuh) which declared that these three men were forgiven:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Allah hath turned in mercy to the Prophet, and to the
Muhajirin and the Ansar who followed him in the
hour of hardship. After the hearts of a party
of them had almost swerved aside, then He turned
unto them in mercy. Lo! He is full of Pity, Merciful.
And to the three also (did He turn in mercy) who
were left behind, when the earth, vast as it is,
was straitened for them, and their own souls were
straitened for them till they understood that
there is no refuge from Allah save toward Him.
Then He turned unto them in mercy that they
(too) might turn (repentant unto Him). Lo!
Allah! He is the Relenting, the Merciful.
O you who believe! Be careful of your duty to
Allah, and be with tile truthful.
THE Prophet (pbuh) had become the most powerful leader in the whole of Arabia. After the idols in the Ka’bah had been smashed and Quraysh had become Muslim, most of the other tribes of Arabia came to declare their Islam. The year in which they came was later to be called the Year of Deputations. As each tribe joined Islam, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sent his men to teach them about their new religion.
Many people also came to Medina to question the Prophet (pbuh) himself. One tribe sent a man called Dimam, who was large and strong. On arriving in Medina, he went straight to the mosque, where the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was sitting with some of his companions, and stood over the Prophet (pbuh). In a loud, rough voice he asked, ‘Which of you is the son of ‘Abd al-Muttalib?’ When the Prophet (pbuh) answered him, Dimam went on, ‘I am going to ask you a hard question, so do not misunderstand me. I ask you to swear by Allah, your God, the God of those before you and the God of those who will come after you, has He sent you to us as a messenger?’
‘Yes, He has’, replied the Prophet (pbuh).
‘Has Allah instructed you to order us to serve Him; to pray these five prayers; to pay alms; to fast; to make the pilgrimage and to follow the other laws of Islam)?’ continued Dimam. When the Prophet(pbuh) answered that Allah had indeed instructed him in this way, Dimam became a Muslim and, as he left, added, ‘Then I will do the things we are told to do and avoid the things we are forbidden-no more and no less.`
As Dimam mounted his camel to leave, the Prophet (pbuh) told the people around him, ‘If this man is sincere, he will go to Paradise.’ When Dimam reached his people they all thought he had gone mad but by nightfall, after he had finished speaking, there was not among them that had not accepted Islam.
When the time came for the yearly pilgrimage, it was proclaimed that the prophet (pbuh) would be going to Mecca. The Muslims flocked to Medina from all over Arabia to join him on his journey to the Ka’bah. As the tribes arrived they camped around the city until they finally numbered more than thirty thousand. The Prophet (pbuh) went out with his family and friends to pilgrimage, but before setting off, he led all the Muslims in prayer. After the prayers, the Prophet (pbuh) got on his camel and headed towards Mecca followed by the pilgrims, all of whom, for the first time in centuries, worshipped Allah, the One God.
The Prophet (pbuh) and his companions were deeply moved by the sight of the huge number of Muslims accompanying them to Mecca, carrying no arms, and fearing no one. They could not help but remember their original flight from Mecca when they had been so few in number and were forced to leave in order to avoid the anger of Quraysh.
Throughout the journey the Muslims repeated a prayer taught to them by the Prophet (pbuh), which he in turn had received, from the Archangel Gabriel. This prayer, the talbiyah, has been part of the Hajj ritual ever since. It is in answer to the call Abraham was commanded to make when he and Ishmael finished building the Ka’bah.
Labaik Allahumma labaik, labaik la sharika laka labaik
in al-hamd wa al-ni’amatu laka wal-mulk, la sharika laka.
Here I am, O Allah, at Thy service. Here I am,
Thou art without partner, here I am. All Praise and blessings
are thine, and Dominion! Thou art without partner!
After ten days the pilgrims marched at sunset through the same pass by which they had entered on the Day of Conquest of Mecca. When they reached the Ka’bah, the Prophet (pbuh) stood before it in prayer, then he and all the Muslims walked around it seven times saying their prayer aloud. Next, just as Abraham had done, they went towards the Mount of Mercy at ‘Arafah, which the Prophet (pbuh) ascended on a camel.
From the mountain he led the people in prayer and then spoke to them, as they stood assembled on the vast plain below. What the Prophet (pbuh) said is known as the ‘Farewell Sermon’, because it was the last speech the Prophet (pbuh) made before he died. He said, ‘surely you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your deeds.’ He asked the Muslims to take their guidance from the Koran and from his own example. This, he said, was the best way to live. He ordered them to cease living in the way they had before Islam. Revenge, one of the oldest traditions in Arabia, was ended forever; usury was prohibited; property was to be respected. Things which previously were forbidden during the four sacred months of the year were now forbidden at all times. He then commanded, ‘Know that every Muslim is a Muslim’s brother’, which was a completely new idea to the tribes who had so often quarreled in the past. He also said, ‘Allah has given everyone his due-exactly what each one deserves. After each point the Prophet (pbuh) asked, ‘Have I explained it well? Is it perfectly clear?’
Everyone answered, ‘Yes.’ For these were the people who would have to pass on the Prophet’s message and instructions to those who were unable to be present that day and to future generations. The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘I have left you two things. If you hold on to them you will be saved. They are Allah’s Book and the words of your Prophet.’ He then asked, ‘Have I not conveyed the message?’
The multitude shouted out, ‘By Allah, yes!’ The Prophet (pbuh) ended, ‘O Allah! Bear witness to that.’
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
… This day those who disbelieve are in despair of
(ever harming) your religion; so do not fear them, but fear Me!
This day I have perfected your religion, for you,
and I have completed My favor unto you, and
have chosen for you as a religion AL-ISLAM
Many Muslims started to shed tears, knowing that if the Prophet (pbuh) had completed his message, his life must be near its end. After spending the rest of the day of ‘Arafah in prayer and contemplation, the Muslims began to complete the pilgrimage by returning to Mecca with the talbiyah prayer still on their lips. The first night of the return journey was spent at Muzdalifah. Here they gathered pebbles, which they carried with them the next day to Mina. There they stood before a huge rock and stoned it in remembrance of Abraham’s meeting with the Devil in that very place. When Abraham received the order from Allah to sacrifice his son Ishmael as a test of his faith, the Devil had tried to convince him not to do it. He came to Abraham at Mina, as he was on his way to carry out Allah’s command, but Abraham took some stones and hurled them at the Devil to drive him away since the casting of stones at Mina on the Prophet’s ‘Farewell Pilgrimage’, this has become another ritual which Muslims perform on the annual pilgrimage to remind them that they, too, must continue to drive the Devil away when he tries to prevent them from being obedient to Allah.
After throwing the stones, the pilgrims sacrificed sheep and camels and gave the meat to the poor. In this way the great faith of Abraham was remembered, for when he had been ready to sacrifice Ishmael, Allah had sent a sheep in his place. The Muslims then completed the pilgrimage by again circling the Ka’bah seven times. They then cut their hair and nails and changed out of their white clothes to show they had returned to their daily lives. Before returning to Medina, the Muslims spent three nights in the valley at Medina where the final preparations were made for the journey home.
As for the Prophet (pbuh), he made one final visit before leaving Mecca. This was to the grave of his devoted wife, Khadijah, who had been the first person to believe in Allah’s Revelation through him. The Prophet (pbuh) knew that this would be the last time he would see the grave, or Mecca, because during the pilgrimage he had received the chapter of the Koran called ‘Help’, form which he knew that his death was not far away.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
When Allah’s help and triumph comes
And thou seest, mankind entering the religion of Allah in troops,
Then hymn the praises of thy Lord, and seek forgiveness of
Him. Lo! He is ever ready show mercy.