Daily Archives: May 26, 2011
“He is Allah, the Creator, the Originator, The Fashioner; to Him belong the most beautiful names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, do declare His praises and glory. And He is the Exalted in Might, The Wise. (Quran 59:24)
“The most beautiful names belong to God: so call on Him by them;…” (7:180)
It is not possible for anyone to understand the meaning of Allah’s names , you just need to think of every word and you will fell it and then you will fell and understand the meaning.
1. Allah: He who has the Godhood which is the power to create the entities.
2. Ar-Rahman: The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers and the blasphemers in this world and especially for the believers in the hereafter.
3. Ar-Rahim: The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers.
4. Al-Malik: The One with the complete Dominion, the One Whose Dominion is clear from imperfection.
5. Al-Quddus: The One who is pure from any imperfection and clear from children and adversaries.
6. As-Salam: The One who is free from every imperfection.
7. Al-Mu’min: The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him. And He witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him.
8. Al-Muhaymin: The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures.
9. Al-^Aziz: The Defeater who is not defeated.
10. Al-Jabbar: The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed.
11. Al-Mutakabbir: The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them.
12. Al-Khaliq: The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence.
13. Al-Bari’: The Creator who has the Power to turn the entities.
14. Al-Musawwir: The One who forms His creatures in different pictures.
15. Al-Ghaffar: The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again.
16. Al-Qahhar: The Subduer who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything.
17. Al-Wahhab: The One who is Generous in giving plenty without any return.
18. Ar-Razzaq: The One who gives everything that benefits whether Halal or Haram.
19. Al-Fattah: The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldy and religious matters.
20. Al-^Alim: The Knowledgeable; The One nothing is absent from His knowledge.
21. Al-Qabid and 22. Al-Basit: The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdom and expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
23. Al-Khafid and 24. Ar-Rafi^: The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.
25. Al-Mu^iz and 26. Al-Muthil: He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degradeswhoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.
27. As-Sami^: The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ.
28. Al-Basir: The One who Sees all things that are seen by His Eternal Seeing without a pupil or any otherinstrument.
29. Al-Hakam: He is the Ruler and His judgment is His Word.
30. Al-^Adl: The One who is entitled to do what He does.
31. Al-Latif: The One who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them.
32. Al-Khabir: The One who knows the truth of things.
33. Al-Halim: The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them.
34. Al-^Azim: The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement,and Purity from all imperfection.
35. Al-Ghafur: The One who forgives a lot.
36. Ash-Shakur: The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience.
37. Al-^Aliyy: The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures.
38. Al-Kabir: The One who is greater than everything in status.
39. Al-Hafiz: The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to protect.
40. Al-Muqit: The One who has the Power.
41. Al-Hasib: The One who gives the satisfaction.
42. Aj-Jalil: The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.
43. Al-Karim: The One who is clear from abjectness.
44. Ar-Raqib: The One that nothing is absent from Him. Hence it’s meaning is related to the attribute ofKnowledge.
45. Al-Mujib: The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him.
46. Al-Wasi^: The Knowledgeable.
47. Al-Hakim: The One who is correct in His doings.
48. Al-Wadud: The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slavesis His Will to be merciful to them and praise them:Hence it’s meaning is related to the attributes of the Will and Kalam (His attribute with which He orders and forbids and spoke to Muhammad and Mu sa -peace be upon them- . It is not a sound nor a language nor a letter).
49. Al-Majid: The One who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness.
50. Al-Ba^ith: The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment.
51. Ash-Shahid: The One who nothing is absent from Him.
52. Al-Haqq: The One who truly exists.
53. Al-Wakil: The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon.
54. Al-Qawiyy: The One with the complete Power.
55. Al-Matin: The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired.
56. Al-Waliyy: The Supporter.
57. Al-Hamid: The praised One who deserves to be praised.
58. Al-Muhsi: The One who the count of things are known to him.
59. Al-Mubdi’: The One who started the human being. That is, He created him.
60. Al-Mu^id: The One who brings back the creatures after death.
61. Al-Muhyi: The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul. He gives life bygiving the souls back to the worn out bodies on the resurrection day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge.
62. Al-Mumit: The One who renders the living dead.
63. Al-Hayy: The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, fleshor blood.
64. Al-Qayyum: The One who remains and does not end.
65. Al-Wajid: The Rich who is never poor. Al-Wajd is Richness.
66. Al-Majid: The One who is Majid.
67. Al-Wahid: The One without a partner.
68. As-Samad: The Master who is relied upon in matters and reverted to in ones needs.
69. Al-Qadir: The One attributed with Power.
70. Al-Muqtadir: The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld from Him.
71. Al-Muqaddim and 72. Al-Mu’akhkhir: The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.
73. Al-’Awwal: The One whose Existence is without a beginning.
74. Al-’Akhir: The One whose Existence is without an end.
75. Az-Zahir 76. Al-Batin: The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without aplace. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributesof bodies.
77. Al-Wali: The One who owns things and manages them.
78. Al-Muta^ali: The One who is clear from the attributes of the creation.
79. Al-Barr: The One who is kind to His creatures, who covered them with His sustenance and specified however He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy.
80. At-Tawwab: The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance.
81. Al-Muntaqim: The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It maymean the One who destroys them.
82. Al-^Afuww: The One with wide forgiveness.
83. Ar-Ra’uf: The One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willedamong His creatures.
84. Malik Al-Mulk: The One who controls the Dominion and gives dominion to whoever He willed.
85. Thul-Jalal wal-Ikram: The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied.
86. Al-Muqsit: The One who is Just in His judgment.
87. Aj-Jami^: The One who gathers the creatures on a day that there is no doubt about, that is the Day of
88. Al-Ghaniyy: The One who does not need the creation.
89. Al-Mughni: The One who satisfies the necessities of the creatures.
90. Al-Mani^: The Supporter who protects and gives victory to His pious believers. Al-Mu’tiy The Withholder
91. Ad-Darr and 92. An-Nafi^: The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.
93. An-Nur: The One who guides.
94. Al-Hadi: The One whom with His Guidance His belivers were guided, and with His Guidance the living: beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them.
95. Al-Badi^: The One who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example.
96. Al-Baqi: The One that the state of non-existence is impossible for Him.
97. Al-Warith: The One whose Existence remains.
98. Ar-Rashid: The One who guides.
99. As-Sabur: The One who does not quickly punish the sinners.
Relying on Allaah is one of the greatest forms of worship.
Allaah Says (what means):
“…And upon Allaah rely, if you should be believers.” [Quran 5: 23]
Allaah Almighty made relying upon Him a condition for faith. Allaah said to His Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam
( may Allaah exalt his mention ) (what means): “…Rely upon Allaah. Indeed,
Allaah loves those who rely [upon Him].” [Quran 3: 159]
Allaah also Says (what means): “…And whoever relies upon Allaah — then He is sufficient for him.
” [Quran 65: 3]
Furthermore, Allaah has linked this reliance to worship, as occurs in His statement (which means):
“…So worship Him and rely upon Him.” [Quran 11: 123]
The meaning of reliance on Allaah
Reliance on Allaah means entrusting one’s affairs to Allaah and relying on Him in all matters.
Entrusting one’s affairs to Allaah entails not turning to something or someone else for support.
So reliance on Allaah can be with regard to matters of creed, such that the servant’s heart does not turn to anyone else besides Allaah.
Therefore, he is always putting his reliance in Allaah, entrusting all of his affairs to Him.
The pagans did not fall into polytheism and disbelief except due to the fact that they put their reliance in other than Allaah, Entrusted their affairs to other than Him, and believed in their hearts that someone besides Allaah was able to grant their requests, Alleviate their worries and repel harms from them. So they relied on statues, idols, trees, stones, graves, shrines and the deceased. They put their trust in created beings to grant them things that only Allaah could do. So they began to ask them for help, offer sacrifices to them, make oaths to them, and direct various forms of worship to them.
This is since they relied on them apart from Allaah, thinking that they have the power to benefit them, harm them or grant their requests. Due to this, when they put their reliance in other than Allaah and directed their beliefs and worship to other than Him, they disbelieved in Him.
Relying upon Allaah is from the actions of the heart – so it is an act of worship of the heart. Therefore, putting one’s trust in Allaah is not to be done with one’s limbs and body parts. Rather, it is found in the heart, just like fear, awe, longing, dreading and dutifulness of Allaah – all of these are acts of worship of the heart.
The position of reliance on Allaah:
The position of reliance on Allaah is as some of the scholars have stated: “The position of reliance upon Allaah in the religion is like that of the head on a body.”
So a person who does not have reliance upon Allaah does not have religion, just like a body that has no head. If the religion lacks reliance upon Allaah, it lacks correctness – meaning that one will not have a correct religion.
Relying on Allaah has a great standing amongst the stations of servitude to Allaah. Allaah distinguishes by it His believing servants from everyone else. Whoever doesn’t put his trust in Allaah at all is a disbeliever. And whoever puts his trust in Allaah and also on others besides Allaah is a polytheist. And as for the one who puts his trust in Allaah alone – he is a monotheistic believer whom Allaah loves, and whose actions and statements He is pleased with. This is since he has established his actions and statements upon a correct foundation.
The foundation of Shirk (polytheism) is: entrusting one’s affairs and putting one’s reliance on other than Allaah. This is why Allaah Says (what means): “…And upon Allaah rely, if you should be believers.” [Quran 5: 23]
Allaah has made reliance on Allaah here a sign of one’s Faith in Him and proof of one’s monotheism.
As for the one who claims to be a believer and an adherent of monotheism, but yet then goes on to put his trust in other than Allaah, such as stones, trees, statues, graves, the deceased, and so on, then this person’s claim is false. And he is not a believer because he has entrusted his affairs to someone besides Allaah.
Relying upon Allaah can be in religious matters as well as worldly matters. Thus you should rely on Allaah in your creed and your monotheism as well as for fulfilling your worldly needs, Such as seeking provision, clothing and accomplishing some set goals. Put your reliance and trust in Allaah for all matters.
When it comes to fulfilling any goal, do not rely on anyone besides Allaah. This is since all of the affairs are in the Hand of Allaah. The keys of the Heavens and the Earth are in His Hand, so we must put our trust and reliance in Him.
Sometimes in this Dunya (world) we are given what we do not want or ask for, and sometimes that which we wish for is just not attainable. Allah `azza wa jall keeps some things away from us, things which our hearts may ardently request, and yet He at times places the world at our feet. He chooses, He commands and He runs our affairs out of wisdom which belongs only to Him. We thus remain suspended between being given of our wishes and being given other than that. The smart one therefore realises that he or she remains suspended between patience and gratitude…
Were He to let the Dunya loose on us and give us of our every want, will and desire, then indeed we would have forgotten Him and we would have become arrogant in the land without right. So He, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, withholds some things and gives us others in order to keep us as believers, humble ones, constantly in a state of iftiqar (dire need) to His Majesty.
وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَٰكِن
يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَّا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ
“And if Allah were to expand the provision for His slaves, they would have surely rebelled on the earth, but He sends down what He wills by a due measure. Verily! He is in respect of His slaves, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer.” [al-Shura: 27]
Rasulullah (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) taught us to say after each prayer the following supplication, and he himself was foremost in saying it:
اللهم لا مَانِعَ لِما أعْطَيتَ ولا مُعْطِي لِما مَنَعْتَ
‘O Allah, nothing can withhold what You have given and no-one can give what You have withheld.’
It is a true beauty, which reminds every believer and renews his/her strength, belief and reliance. It’s a powerful wall for us to lean on whenever difficulties arise and it is an ascending set of stairs for us to use when we need to walk out of each and every calamity.
And it was once said to me, ‘When Allah withholds, He actually gives…’ – deep, if only we pondered.
Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard the Prophet saying, “If somebody commits a sin and then says, ‘O my Lord! I have sinned, please forgive me!’ and his Lord says, ‘My slave has known that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes for it, I therefore have forgiven my slave (his sins).’ Then he remains without committing any sin for a while and then again commits another sin and says, ‘O my Lord, I have committed another sin, please forgive me,’ and Allah says, ‘My slave has known that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes for it, I therefore have forgiven my slave (his sin). Then he remains without Committing any another sin for a while and then commits another sin (for the third time) and says, ‘O my Lord, I have committed another sin, please forgive me,’ and Allah says, ‘My slave has known that he has a Lord Who forgives sins and punishes for it I therefore have forgiven My slave (his sin), he can do whatever he likes.” (Bukhari, 7025)
This hadith doesnt mean that we can keep committing sins and then repent to Allah. This hadith tells us that Allah is so merciful and he forgives us for the sins that we commit.
قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاء وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاء وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاء وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَاء بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿
Say, `O Allâh! the Lord of all power, You grant power to whomsoever You will and take away power from whomsoever You please, and confer honour and dignity on whomsoever You will and disgrace whomsoever You will. All good lies in Your hand. Verily, You are the Possessor of full power to do all You will, (3 : 26)
تُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي الْنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ ﴿٢٧
You cause the night to merge into the day and cause the day to merge into the night, and bring forth the living from the dead and bring forth the dead from the living, and provide (all sorts of provisions) to whomsoever You will without measure.’ (3: 27 )
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, to Him belong the endowments and the befitting perfections and commendations. I ask Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and to protect his Ummah from that which he fears for it. Thereafter:
The saying that Allah, Ta’ala, exists without a place for His existence is the belief and the creed of the Messenger of Allah, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Companions and those who graciously followed them, and it shall be so until the Day of Judgment. The proof of this precious statement is what Allah said in the Glorious Qur’an, in Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:
which means: “There is nothing like Him and He is endowed with hearing seeing.” This ayah declares Allah to be immune from resembling His creation. It includes that Allah, Ta’ala, is different from the creations in Essence, Attributes, and Deeds. Hence, it shows that Allah, Ta’ala, exists without a place for His existence, because the one who exists in a place would, by nature, be composed of atoms, i.e., he would be a body, occupying a space, and Allah, Ta’ala, is clear of occupying spaces.
Imams al-Bukhari, al-Bayhaqi and Ibn al Jarud related that the Messenger of Allah, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:
which means: “There was Allah and nothing existed but Him” He existed from eternity and there was nothing else.” This hadith proves that Allah was alone in al-‘azal (the status of existence without a beginning,) , before creating any of the creation. There was nothing with Him: no place, no space, no sky, no light, and no darkness. It is determined in the rules of Din and the judgments of the sound mind that Allah, the Exalted, does not change. Hence, it is impossible that after having been existing without a place, He would start existing in a place, because this is a development, and the development is a sign of needing others, and the one who needs others is not God.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi related in his book, al-Farqu bayn al Firaq, that Imam ‘Ali, the fourth rightly-guided caliph, may Allah be generous
with him, said which means: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place, and He is now ias He was before.
Imam Abu Hanifah, the Faqih of as-Salaf, said in his book Al-Fiqh al Absat: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place. He existed before creating the creation. He existed, and there was no place, creation, or thing; and He is the Creator of everything.”
Imam al-Hafizh al-Bayhaqi said in his book, al-Asma’u wa-s-Sifat: “…What was mentioned towards the end of the hadith is an indication of denying Allah has a place and denying the slave is alike to Allah, wherever he was in proximity or remoteness. Allah, the Exalted, is az-Zhahir, the External, hence, it is valid to know about Him by proofs. Allah is al-Batin, the Internal, and this invalids that He would be in a place.” He also said: “Some of our companions used as a proof to refute the place to Allah the saying of the Prophet, sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : ‘You are the External and there is nothing above You, and You are the Intern<l and there is nothing underneath You.’ Therefore, if there is nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, He is not in a place.”
Imam Ahmad Ibn Salamah, Abu Ja’far at Tahawi, who was born in the year 237 hijri, wrote a book called al-‘Aqidah at Tahawiyyah. He describes that the content of his noble book as an elucidation of the creed of Ahlu-s Sunnah wa-l-Jama’ah, which is the creed of Imam Abu Hanifah, who died in the year 150 hijri, and his two companions, Imam Abu Yusuf al-Qadi and Imam Muhammad Ibn alHasan ash-Shaybani and the others followers of the school. He said in his book: “Allah is supremely clear of all boundaries, extremes, sides, organs and instruments. The six directions do not contain Him–these are attributed to all created things.” Such is the saying of Imam Abu Ja’far who is an eminent scholar among the as-Salaf. He explicitly stated that Allah is clear of being contained by the six directions. The six directions are above, below, in front of, behind, right, and left.
The linguist and scholar of hadith, Imam Muhammad Murtada az-Zabidi, narrated by a continuous chain from himself back to Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin ‘Ali Ibn al-Husayn Ibn ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib,, the one who earned the title of as-Sajjad for his frequent prayers, who said in his treatise as Sahifah as-Sajjadiyyah, also known as Zabur Ali Muhammad, about Allah:
which means: “O Allah, You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah, the One Who no place contains You.” He also said:
which means: “O Allah, You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah, the One Who is not in boundaries.”
In the explanation of al-Bukhari in the chapter on al-Jihad, Hafidh Ibn Hajar said: “The fact that the two directions above and below are impossible to be attributes of Allah, does not necessitate that Allah would not be attributed with aboveness, because attributing aboveness to Allah is a matter of status and the impossibility lies in it being physical.”
The scholar Imam Zayn ad-Din Ibn Nujaym al-Hanafi, in his book Al-Bahr ar Ra’iq, said: “Whoever says it is possible that Allah would do a deed in which there is no wisdom commits blasphemy, and also he commits blasphemy by affirming a place to Allah, the Exalted.”
Imam Ahmad ar-Rifa’i al-Kabir, who lived around the year 600 hijri, said:
which means: “The ultimate knowledge about Allah is to be certain that Allah exists without a how or a place.”
Imam Muhammad Ibn Hibah al-Makki, in his book Hada’iqu-l-Fusul wa Jawahiri-l-‘Uqul,–also called al-‘Aqidat-as-Salahiyyah because he gave it as a gift to Sultan Salah-ad-Din al-Ayyubiyy who ordered that this book be taught to the children in schools and broadcast from the top of minarets, said:
which means: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place, and the judgment about His existence now is that He is as He was, i.e., without a place.”Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq said: “He who claims that Allah is in something or on something or from something, commits ash-shirk. Because if He was in something, He would be contained, and if He was on something, He would be carried, and if He was from something, He would be a creature.”
Shaykh ‘Abdul-Ghani an-Nabulusi said: “He who believes that Allah fills the heavens and earth or that He is a body sitting above the Throne is an unbeliver.”
Imam Abul-Qasim ‘Ali Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibatillah Ibn ‘Asakir said in his ‘Aqidah: “Allah existed before the creation. He does not have a before or an after, an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind, a whole or a part. It must not be said when was He, where was He, or how was He. He exists without a place.”
Imam Abu Sulayman al-Khattabi said: “What is obligatory upon us and upon every Muslim to know is that our Lord has no shape or form, because the shape has a ‘how’ and ‘how’ does not apply to Allah or His Attributes.”
Know beyond doubt that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, because this is a question about shapes, bodies, places, depths and dimensions; Allah is clear of all of that. Also be firm that it is invalid to say about Allah “… but we do not know how”, because in essence, it falsely indicates that Allah has a color, shape, dimensions, body, place, but one is ignorant of the ‘how’ of it.
Imam al-Ghazali said: ” Allah, the Exalted, existed eternally and there was no place. He is not a body, a atom, or a property, and He is not on a place or in a place.”
All of these sayings show that attributing the sensuous physical aboveness and place to Allah is contrary to the Qur’an, the hadith, the ijma’, and the intellectual proof. The intellectual proof that Allah exists without a place lies in the fact that the one who is in a place would have an area, and the one who has an area is in need of it, and the one who needs others is not God. Moreover, as the mind determines that Allah existed without a place before creating places, the mind determines that after Allah created the places He still exists without a place.
Scholars like Imam Ahmad ar Rifa’i determined that lifting the hands and the faces towards the sky when performing du’a (supplication) is because the heavens are the qiblah of du’a just as the Ka’bah is the qiblah of as Salah. From the heavens, the mercies and blessings of Allah descend. This does not mean He is located there, exactly like he is not located inside the Ka’bah.
Hence, it is clear for the one who seeks the truth that the saying that Allah exists without a place is what complies with the Qur’an, the hadith, the ijma’, and the criteria of the sound intellect. Be firm and certain that before creating places, Allah Who created everything (places and others), existed without a place, and after creating places, He still exists without a place.
Since we have determined that the creed of the Muslims is that Allah exists without a place and that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, it is clear to us that the Throne which is the ceiling of Paradise, is not a place for Allah, the Exalted.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi related that Imam ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the fourth caliph, said:
which means: “Allah created the Throne as an indication of His power and did not take it as a place for Himself.”
Imam Abu Hanifah said in his book from his school al Wasiyyah: ” … and He is the Preserver of the Throne and of other than the Throne without needing it. Had He been in need, He would not have the power to create the world and to manage and preserve it. Moreover, had He been in a place needing to sit and rest before creating the Throne, where was Allah, then?” That is the question: ‘where was Allah’ would have applied to Him, which is impossible.
Also, in his book, Al-Fiqh al-Absat, Imam Abu Hanifah said: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place; He existed before creating the creation. He existed and there was not a place, a creation or a thing; and He is the Creator of everything. He who says ‘I do not know if my Lord is in the heavens or on the earth, is a unbeliever. Also is an unbeliever whoever says that ‘He is on the Throne and I do not know whether the Throne is in the heaven or on the earth’.”
Consequently, Imam Ahmad declared a kafir whomever says these last two phrases because they contain attributing a direction, boundary, and place to Allah. Everything which has a direction and boundary is by necessity in need of a Creator. Thus it is not the intention of Imam Abu Hanifah to prove that the heaven and the Throne are places for Allah, as those who liken Allah to the creation claim. This is by virtue of the aforementioned saying of the Imam: “Had He been in a place needing to sit and rest, then before creating the Throne where was Allah?”, which is clear in negating that Allah has a direction or a place.
In his book, al-Ihya’ Ulumu-d-Din, Imam al Ghazali said: “… places do not contain Him, nor do the directions, earth, or heavens. He is attributed with subjugating the Throne as He said in the Qur’an–with the meaning that He willed–and not as what people may delude. It is a a kind of subjugation which is clear of touching, resting, holding, moving and containment. The Throne does not carry Him, but rather the Throne and those angels who carry it are all carried by Allah with His Power and are subjugated to Him. He is above the Throne and above the heavens and above everything–in status– an aboveness that does not give Him proximity to the Throne or the heavens as it does not give Him farness from earth. He is higher in status than everything: higher in status than the Throne and the heavens, as He is higher in status than earth and the rest of the creation. ”
Shaykh ‘Abdu-l-Ghani an-Nabulusi said: “He who believes that Allah filled the heavens and earth or that He is a body sitting above the Throne, is a kafir.” Allah the Most High says in the Noble Qur’an (Maryam, 93) :
which means: “All those in the heavens and earth must come to Allah as creatures.” In his Exegesis, Imam ar-Razi said: “… And since it is affirmed by this verse that everything that existed in the heavens and earth is a creature to Allah, and since it is obligatory that Allah is clear of being a creature, thus He is clear of being in a place or direction, or on the Throne or the Chair.”
That is the reason why Allah Ta’ala says (Taha,5):
“The Merciful subjugates the Throne” It clearly does not mean that Allah sits on the throne or that Allah is physycally established on the Throne. In the Arabic language, the word istawa’ (which with translated as subjugating) has fifteen different meanings, among of which are to subjugate, to sit, to protect, to conquer, and to preserve. Based on what we have covered so far it is clear that it is blasphemous to apply the meaning ‘to sit’ to Allah. However the terms to preserve and to subjugate are in compliance with Din and language.
Imam Hafizh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali explained the meaning of al-istiwa’ by al-istila’, which means subjugating. That is, Allah attributed Himself with subjugating the Throne in pre-eternity. Since the angelic Throne is subjugated by Allah, then everything else which is smaller than His Throne is under the control of Allah.
It was narrated about Imam Malik Ibn Anas, may Allah reward him, in what al Bayhaqi related with a sound chain from the route of ‘Abd-Ullah Ibn Wahb, that “We were at Malik’s when a man entered and said, ‘O Aba ‘Abd-Illah, (meaning Imam Malik), the Merciful subjugates the Throne, but how does he subjugate?’ Malik looked down astonishingly and then lifted his head and said “He subjugates in the way He attributed to Himself the deed of subjugating. It is forbidden to ask ‘how’, since ‘how’ cannot be applied to Him. BY your question I understand you have become an Heretic. Please, bring him away.” Hence, the saying of Imam Malik, ”how’ cannot be applied to Him’, and this means that His subjugation of the Throne is without a how, i.e., it is not with a body, place, shape, or form as sitting, touching, suspending above, and the like.
Hence, there is no basis for the saying of those who liken Allah to the creation, who misunderstand Imam Malik and his words “the act of subjugating is known but the how of it is unknown”. The interpret it by claiming that istawa’ is sitting, but the way of sitting is not know. This saying of theirs is an heretic innovation, because sitting, no matter how it is would be imply the existence of organs and parts that fold. Moreover, that term that they attribute to Imam Malik was not clearly confirmed about him by others.
Imam al-Lalaka’i narrated about the Mother of Believers Umm Salamah and Rabi’ah Ibn Abi ‘Abdu-r-Rahman:
which means: “The attribute of subjugating is not unknown, because it is mentioned in the Qur’an. The how (kayf) of it is inconceivable, because its applicability to Allah is impossible.” Hence, the ahadith and the ayat that attribute aboveness to Allah, refer to the aboveness of status and not the aboveness of place, direction, touching or suspending.
Allah says in His Glorious Book (al-An’am, 61):
which means: “And He is the Victorious above His creatures”, Hence the related aboveness is that of subjugation and not that of place or direction.
Beware of what appeared in the Censored and Reprinted Translation of the meanings of the Qur’an by Yusuf Ali, which in its revised version is issued and printed by King Fahd Holy Qur’an Printing Complex in Medina al-Munawwarah, where on page 879, in interpreting ayah 5 in Surat Taha:
The original Yusuf Ali translation: “The Most Gracious is firmly established on the throne,” and in the footnote the Wahhabi heretics added: “Who encompasses all creation and SITS on the throne.”
Similarly, be aware of all the other parts of this book which liken Allah to His creation, like on page 1799 where in ayah 42 of Surat al-Qalam:
they attribute a shin to Allah. On page 1015 in interpreting Surat an-Nur, ayah 35:
they correctly interpret “Allah is the light” but in the footnote they explicitly declare their deviance by saying “We can only think of Allah in terms of our phenomenal experience.”
Al-Mushabbihah are those who liken Allah to the creation; they believe Allah resembles the creation. They attribute to Allah places, directions, shapes, and bodies, and they try to camouflage it by saying: “However, we do not know how His place is, or how He is sitting, or how His face is, or how His shin is, or how his light is.” All of that does not clear them of blasphemy.
Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds the One Who is clear of resembling the creation, all non befitting attributes, and all that which the blasphemers unrightfully say about Him.
And Allah knows best.