Treaty of Hudaibiya


 

Treaty of Hudaibiya: Prophet of Islam prefered Global Peace & Unity over conflict

QURAYSH had tried to destroy Islam but had failed. The number of Muslims grew and their armies increased from three hundred at the battle of Badr, seven hundred at the battle of “Uhud, to three thousand at the battle of the Trench.

After the annual fast of Ramadan, the Prophet (pbuh) had a dream which indicated that the Muslims should go to Mecca for the pilgrimage. One thousand and four hundred Muslims got ready to go with him on the Lesser Pilgrimage called ‘the `Umra’. They dressed in white and went unarmed to show Quraysh that they had come to make the pilgrimage and not to fight. When Quraysh heard that the Prophet (pbuh) was on his way, they sent troops with Khalid ibn al-Walid to stop the Muslims from entering the city.

To avoid meeting this small army the Prophet (pbuh) changed his route and led the men through rugged mountain passes. When they reached easier ground he told them, ‘Say, we ask Allah’s forgiveness and we repent towards Him ‘At Hudaybiyah, south of Mecca, the Prophet’s camel knelt down and refused to go any further. The Muslims thought she was either stubborn or tired, but the Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘The same power that once stopped the elephant from entering Mecca is now stopping us!’ He then ordered them to make camp, which they did, although they all hoped they would travel on to the sacred Ka’bah the following day.

On setting up camp, the believers were dismayed to find that the springs were almost dry. When he heard this the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) instructed a man called Najiyah to take the bowl of water in which he had performed his ablutions, pour it into the hollows where the small amount of spring water lay, and stir it with his arrows. Najiyah did as he was told and the fresh water gushed up so suddenly that he was hardly able to get out of the way in time.

Messengers were sent to Quraysh to tell them that the Muslims had come only for the pilgrimage, to worship Allah at the Holy Ka’bah, and that they wanted to enter the city peacefully. But Quraysh took no notice. Finally, the Prophet’s son-in-law, ‘Uthman ibn Affan, a wise and respected man, was chosen to go, and the Muslims settled down to wait and see what news he would bring back. After they had waited a long time, the Muslims became very worried. At last they decided that he must have been killed. A state similar to that of Revelation then came upon the Prophet (pbuh). He gathered the Muslims around him under an acacia tree and asked them to swear their allegiance to him, which they did. This pact, which is mentioned in the Koran, became known as the Treaty of Radwan (which means Paradise). Shortly after, `Uthman ibn Affan returned and the Muslims were relieved to see that no harm had come to him.

Some Meccan warriors tried to attack the Muslim camp but were captured and brought before the Prophet (pbuh), who forgave them when they promise to stop attacking the Muslims. Soon after this, official messengers came from Quraysh and talks began for a peaceful settlement. A man called Suhayl ibn ‘Amr was sent by the Meccans to work out a treaty. When the Prophet (pbuh) asked ‘Ali to write ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful’, on the top of the page, Suhayl objected, saying ‘Write only: bismik Allahumma (in Thy name, O Allah). I don’t know him as al-Rahman (the Most Gracious), al-Rahim (the most Merciful).’

The Prophet (pbuh) agreed and dictated: ‘This is a treaty between Muhammad the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.’ ‘Stop!’ cried Suhayl, ‘I don’t believe that you are Rasulallah (the Messenger of Allah). If I thought you were Allah’s Messenger, I wouldn’t be fighting against you, would I?’

Calmly, the Prophet (pbuh) agreed that he should be referred to in the treaty as Muhammad’, son of ‘Abd Allah. The Muslims were very upset at this, and ‘Umar furiously cried out, ‘Are you not Allah’s Messenger, and are we not Muslims? How can we accept such treatment when we are right and they are wrong? This will make people laugh at our religion!’

But the Prophet (pbuh) knew what was best and the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed. In this treaty the two sides agreed to stop fighting for a period of ten years. It was also agreed that the Muslims should go back to Medina immediately but that they could return the following year for the pilgrimage. This pilgrimage would last three days. In addition, the treaty allowed Muslims wishing to leave Islam and return to Mecca to do so. It also permitted Meccans to leave and become Muslims provided they had the permission of their guardians. The Muslims agreed to send any Meccan who did not have their guardian’s permission back to Mecca.

Suhayl’s son had come with his father with the idea of joining the Prophet (pbuh) but when the treaty was signed he was, of course, forced to return to Mecca. He cried bitterly. The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘O Abu Jandal, be patient and control yourself. Allah will provide relief and find a way out for you and others like you.’

The majority of the Muslims were very disappointed when they heard the terms of the agreement and thought that it should not have been accepted. They did not realize that this was in fact a great victory for the Prophet (pbuh), which Allah would later confirm in a Revelation. The agreement made sure that the following year they would enter Mecca peacefully, and in time would result in Muslims becoming stronger and more respected throughout Arabia. At the time the treaty was signed the Muslims could not have foreseen that the number of people who would travel to Medina to become Muslims in following year would be greater than in all the years before.

Before the Muslims departed, they followed the Prophet’s example of making sacrifice and either shaving or cutting their hair. Even though they were unable to visit the sacred mosque, their pilgrimage was accepted by Allah because it had been their true intention. On the return journey to Medina, the ‘Victory’ chapter of the Koran was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh). It begins:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 Surely We have given thee (O Muhammad) a clear victory,

That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin

That which is past and that which is to come,

And may complete His blessings upon thee,

And may guide thee on the right path,

And that Allah may help thee with mighty help.

(Koran xlviii.1-3)

            Now most of those who left Mecca to join the Prophet (pbuh) without the consent of their guardians and were turned back by him as agreed, Did not in fact return to Mecca, but lived instead in groups along the seashore. Then they were joined by others who had left Mecca but these groups began to endanger Quraysh caravans which were passing by and disrupted their trade because of this, Quraysh told the Prophet (pbuh) that if he wanted to take these new Muslims, they would not ask for them to be returned. The young men, therefore, joined the Prophet (pbuh) and the people in Mecca and Medina grew more at ease with one another. The young men from the seashore were shortly followed by those Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia, and soon the numbers of believers in Medina had doubled.

About this time, Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great warrior who had defeated the Muslims at Uhud, set out from Mecca for Medina. Along the way he met ‘Amr ibn al-’As, the clever speaker who had pursued the Muslims when they fled to Abyssinia. ‘Amr, who had attempted to find asylum in Abyssinia, had just returned from that country, the Negus having urged him to enter Islam. He asked Khalid, ‘Where are you going?’ Khalid replied, ‘The way has become clear. The man is certainly a Prophet, and by Allah, I am going to become a Muslim. How much longer should I delay?’ ‘Amr ibn al-As answered, ‘I am travelling for the same reason.

So they both traveled on to Medina to join the Prophet (pbuh). The two men were, however, worried about meeting the Prophet (pbuh) because of having fought against the Muslims in the past. Therefore, ‘Amr came before Allah’s Messenger he said, ‘O Prophet, will my past faults be forgiven and no mention made of what has gone before?’ The Prophet (pbuh) replied ‘Amr, Islam wipes away everything that happened before, as does the hijrah.’ A year after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) was able to lead two thousand pilgrims on the ‘Umra. Quraysh vacated Mecca and watched the rites from the hills above the city. The agreed period of three days was observed, after which the Muslims returned to Medina.

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About Abdul Satar

Analytical & Creative I'm not a Sheikh or a scholar, I'm just a regular guy in love with this Deen.Don't praise me for practicing my Deen. But pray for me, for the errors, that you haven't seen.

Posted on June 10, 2011, in Prophet Mohammad (Peace be up on him). Bookmark the permalink. 5 Comments.

  1. i love islam…..
    it is the best religion for the whole of mankind ever:):):)

  2. It’s really a cool and useful piece of information. I’m satisfied that you shared this helpful information with us.
    Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you
    for sharing.

  3. Good day! This post could not be written any better!
    Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate!
    He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him.
    Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  4. AbduRahman Yusuf

    This story is well-written and concise. I proudly in humility affirm its truth in essence as a Muslim. I appreciate the author while hoping that many men of “Nour”, “Ilm”, and “Da’wah” will work further on this effort; especially much more from its utility-value perspectives.

    The divine apostle and Prophet, I mean illiterate Mustapha Muhammad had earlier prepared the first ever written and most comprehensive Constitution in Human civilization history – that was the Medina Constitution that ensured peaceful co-existence of migrants with settlers; Muslims with ethnic Jews etc. The historic Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (which built on the ethics of the Medina constitution) again remain a master-piece of peculiar and rare Leadership attributes. These for sure established (unprecedented and never to be surpassed) leadership lessons in Faith, Inspiration, Wisdom, Foresight, Charisma, Steadfastness, Resoluteness, Strategies, Consistency, and Patience – all of which produced unjuxtaposable and evident Result that is self-enduring and self-invigorating till eternity.

    Outside the semantic gym boxes, I am convinced that the profusely-read modern man, with his sophistication in literacy and technologies, is yet largely UNHAPPY and obviously in dire and urgent need of leadership assistance that can very well be inspired/ignited through the conveyed message and steps taken by the illiterate Muhammad of 14th century! That is where the miracle is, and remains, never to be challenged. Again, he and his time lacked all modern tools for effective and efficient documentation; but his person and legacy became the unprecedented and never to be surpassed documentations of History in our modern time. Think of a documented guidance (with specific cautions and instructions) that covers up to food, toilet, children, women, sex, poverty, wealth/riches, coughing, sneezing, naming, marrying, funerals, living, legislation, commerce, economics, politics, dying, death, here, here-before,here-after, and beyond! .

    Insightful ones of intellectual honesty, among Believers and “Unbelievers”, are still testifying inspite of cacophonies of the wide, wild, and closet-dominating media.

    George Bernard Shaw studied him and found him to be considered the saviour of Mankind whose likes alone can succeed solving Man’s problems, modern or not. The Shaw saw in the Merciful Message the uniquely unsurpassed and peculiarly unsurpassable “assimilating capacity …” that can fittingly address changing phases of Mankind.
    Read more in the “Genuine Islam, Vol. 1″ by George Bernard Shaw.

    Modern Leadership thought is all about INFLUENCE today. Astrophysicist American Michael Harts in a classical research book of this modernity rated the illiterate but divinely illuminated Muhammad as the most influential in History of mankind. Michael found through his research, the Muhammad who penultimately conducted the marriage of Body with Soul, Mundane with Spirit, and Faith with Empiricism, to be the most successful of all personages of historic fame and relevance. He also found his success built on so much of paucity of means. That is the art of producing astoundingly with near-nothing meagerness of resources. This is the character of an inexhaustive Leadership Fountain for thoughts that thirst beyond Commerce and Economics! Again, today’s most INFLUENTIAL man in history never deemed Leadership in Influence terms; he more than 1400 years ago solved our today’s Leadership definition problem when he declared that “The Leader of a people/community is their Servant”! Imagine Leadership becoming a noble profession of SERVICE to others. Everyone needs SERVICE but many will not give, except the noble ones who can and must appreciate the burden of Trust. This will promptly replace prevalent Leadership “Tussles” with Leadership Genuiness. Let’s apply this to living and businesses and behold the result. How happier can man ever be!

    Those who desire to be true leaders even today have so much more to learn and imbibe in the noble Muhammad’s message and steps. He is and remains the last divine Messenger of the Creator sent to the Creation, the human medium of last Testament to Mankind, the Quranic Mercy to Mankind, the Biblical Comforter and Spirit of Truth who came, on the heel of, and as predictably announced by the noble Jesus Christ.

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